Riksdagens delegation vid OSSE:s parlamentariska församling överlämnar bifogade redogörelse för verksamheten inom den parlamentariska församlingen under 2008.
Stockholm den 28 maj 2009
På delegationens vägnar
Walburga Habsburg Douglas
Verksamheten inom OSSE:s parlamentariska församling 2008 3
1 Framväxten av Organisationen för säkerhet och samarbete i Europa (OSSE) 3
2 Den parlamentariska dimensionen inom OSSE 4
2.1 Församlingens verksamhet och organisation 4
2.1.1 Plenarsessioner och vintermöten 4
2.1.2 Presidiet (byrån) 4
2.1.3 Det ständiga utskottet 4
2.1.4 Sekretariatet 5
2.2 Partigrupper 5
3 Den svenska delegationen 6
4 Verksamheten under 2008 7
4.1 Möten under året 7
4.2 Utskottsarbetet 8
4.2.1 Utskott I Politiska frågor och säkerhetsärenden 8
4.2.2 Resolutioner antagna av utskott I 9
4.3 Utskott II Ekonomi och miljö 9
4.3.1 Resolutioner antagna av utskott II 9
4.4 Utskott III demokrati och mänskliga rättigheter 9
4.4.1 Resolutioner antagna av utskott III 10
4.5 Församlingens budget 10
5 Församlingens bidrag till demokratisk utveckling 11
5.1 Församlingens ad hoc-arbetsgrupper 11
6 Särskilda representanter 12
6.1 Genus och jämställdhet 12
6.2 Södra Kaukasus och Nagorno-Karabach 12
7 Valövervakning 14
8 Samarbete inom och utom församligen 16
8.1 Samarbetet i Medelhavsregionen 16
8.2 Samarbete med andra parlamentariska församlingar 16
OSSE:s medlemsstater 18
Verksamheten inom OSSE:s parlamentariska församling 2008
1 Framväxten av Organisationen för säkerhet och samarbete i Europa (OSSE)
Organisationen för säkerhet och samarbete i Europa (OSSE) har sitt ursprung i den europeiska säkerhetskonferensen (ESK). ESK etablerades 1975 som ett forum för pågående politiska förhandlingar mellan öst och väst. År 1993 fick ESK ställning som regional organisation i FN enligt FN-stadgans kapitel VIII. År 1995 bytte konferensen namn till Organisationen för säkerhet och samarbete i Europa (OSSE).
OSSE omfattar i dag 56 stater och utgör en effektiv organisation i det internationella säkerhetspolitiska samarbetet. Organisationen har en vid medlemskrets – från Vladivostok till Vancouver – en flexibel struktur och en bred syn på säkerhet. Dess verksamhet omfattar tre dimensioner: den militärpolitiska, den mänskliga (demokrati och mänskliga rättigheter) samt dimensionen för ekonomi och miljö.
Tyngdpunkten inom OSSE:s verksamhet försköts under 1990-talet från långsiktiga förhandlingar om normbyggande och militära förtroendeskapande åtgärder till konfliktförebyggande och återuppbyggnad. OSSE är en i hög grad operativ organisation och dess flexibla organisation gör snabba förebyggande insatser möjliga, ofta i nära samarbete med andra internationella organ. Den har för närvarande fältkontor i 16 länder, och den övervägande delen av budgeten går till konkreta fältinsatser. Fältmissionernas arbete är inriktat på att stärka respekten för mänskliga rättigheter och rättsstatens principer, bygga upp demokratiska institutioner och stödja förtroendeskapande åtgärder mellan olika befolkningsgrupper.
Organisationen har kapacitet att verka i olika skeden av en konflikt: förvarning, förebyggande, konflikthantering samt återuppbyggnad respektive utveckling av demokrati och rättsstatens principer. Organisationen har också i allt större utsträckning tagit sig an frågor som sträcker sig över samtliga tre dimensioner, såsom frågorna om människohandel, terrorism och gränsövervakning.
Samarbete med länder utanför det egna geografiska området regleras genom partnerskapsavtal.
2 Den parlamentariska dimensionen inom OSSE
2.1 Församlingens verksamhet och organisation
Den parlamentariska församlingen i OSSE (OSSE PF) etablerades 1990 i samband med att OSSE fick en fastare institutionell struktur.
OSSE:s parlamentariska församling ska genom dialog bidra till att utveckla och främja konfliktlösningar, bidra till en demokratisk samhällsutveckling, värna rättsstatens principer och stödja demokratiska institutioner i medlemsländerna. Församlingen ska också granska huruvida medlemsländernas regeringar genomför de resolutioner och rekommendationer som församlingen ålägger dem. Målen för församlingens verksamhet anges i dess stadga.
2.1.1 Plenarsessioner och vintermöten
Församlingens möts i en årlig plenarsession och i ett vintermöte då de nationella delegationerna från OSSE:s 56 medlemsländer samlas. Församlingen har 320 ledamöter och lika många ersättare. Antalet medlemmar i de nationella delegationerna är fastlagt i församlingens stadga. Under sessionerna följer församlingen upp hur OSSE:s mål efterlevs, diskuterar aktuella politiska frågor och har en dialog med OSSE:s organ på regeringsnivå, vilket är en viktig del av sessionerna. Beslut i församlingens plenum fattas med majoritet.
OSSE:s parlamentariska församling har tre fackutskott som motsvarar regeringssidans dimensioner och vilka sammanträder under vintermötet och sommarsessionen.
Vid sessionerna förekommer även regionala möten. Den danska delegationen inbjöd de övriga nordiska och de baltiska delegationerna till en lunch under sommarsessionen i Astana.
2.1.2 Presidiet (byrån)
Församlingen leds av en president som väljs för ett verksamhetsår med möjlighet till omval en gång.
Församlingens presidium (byrå) består av presidenten och nio vicepresidenter som väljs för tre år med möjlighet till omval. En vicepresident kan ingå i presidiet i högst sex år.
Byrån samlas i utvidgad form i december och i april med deltagande av utskottens presidier för att förbereda rapporter och resolutionsutkast inför sommarsessionen.
2.1.3 Det ständiga utskottet
Församlingens ständiga utskott utgörs av de nationella delegationernas ordförande, församlingens presidium och de tre utskottens presidier. Det ständiga utskottet föreslår dagordning för sessionen och tar ställning till aktuella politiska frågor mellan sessionerna. Det beslutar bl.a. vilka föreslagna tilläggsämnen som ska tas upp till debatt under sessionen och vilka fackutskott som ska bereda dessa. Beslut fattas enligt principen konsensus minus en.
OSSE PF:s sekretariat finns i Köpenhamn (14 personer) och har en filial i Wien (2 personer). Församlingens högste tjänsteman är generalsekreterare Spencer Oliver (USA). Han har lett sekretariatet sedan starten och fick 2005 fortsatt mandat på sex år.
OSSE PF har sex officiella språk: engelska, franska, italienska, ryska, spanska och tyska.
Inom församlingen verkar fem partigrupper: socialistgruppen, den konservativa gruppen, den liberala gruppen, vänstergruppen och den gröna gruppen. Grupperna har inga sekretariat. De får inte heller några finansiella bidrag från församlingen. Partigrupperna sammanträder i samband med de stadgeenliga mötena.
3 Den svenska delegationen
I riksdagens OSSE-delegation ingår åtta ledamöter och lika många ersättare. Dessa väljs av kammaren för en hel valperiod. Sedan november 2006 då delegationen valdes har vissa förändringar skett. Den 1 januari 2008 hade delegationen följande sammansättning.
Ordinarie ledamöter: Ersättare:
Tone Tingsgård, s Åsa Lindestam, s
Walburga Habsburg Douglas, m Kent Olsson, m
Urban Ahlin, s Peter Jonsson, s
Göran Lennmarker, m Anna König Jerlmyr, m
Åsa Lindestam, s Marie Nordén, s
Håkan Juholt, s Aleksander Gabelic, s
Fredrick Federley, c Eva Selin Lindgren, c
Cecilia Wigström, fp Annelie Enochson, kd
I december 2008 lämnade Urban Ahlin sitt uppdrag och ersattes av Aleksander Gabelic som ordinarie ledamot i OSSE-delegationen. Någon suppleant efter Gabelic utsågs inte under året.
Delegationens ordförande är Walburga Habsburg Douglas och vice ordförande är Tone Tingsgård.
Fördelningen i församlingens utskott:
Utskott I politik och säkerhet: Håkan Juholt, Åsa Lindestam
Utskott II ekonomi och miljö: Fredrick Federley, Aleksander Gabelic
Utskott III Mänskliga rättigheter och demokrati: Walburga Habsburg Douglas, Tone Tingsgård, Cecilia Wigström.
Svenska delegater har valts till följande uppdrag av församlingen:
Göran Lennmarker fick positionen som president emeritus vid sommar-sessionen då han efter två år lämnade uppdraget som församlingens president. I augusti utsågs han till OSSE PF:s särskilda sändebud för situationen i Georgien. Han har kvar sitt tidigare uppdrag som särskild representant för konflikten Nagorno-Karabach.
Walburga Habsburg Douglas valdes till vice ordförande för tredje kommittén vid sommarsessionen.
Tone Tingsgård har tidigare omvalts till vicepresident 2006–2009 och ingår därmed i församlingens presidium (byrå). Hon har ett uppdrag från församlingens president som särskild representant i genusfrågor. Hon leder också församlingens arbetsgrupp för Abchazien.
Cecilia Wigström ingår sedan december i en arbetsgrupp för demokratiutveckling i Vitryssland.
4 Verksamheten under 2008
4.1 Möten under året
Vintermötet hölls i Wien den 21–22 februari. Utöver de sedvanliga förberedelserna för sommarsessionen arrangerades två temadebatter: Missilförsvar och CFE-avtalet samt Situationen i Kosovo.
Församlingens sjuttonde session hölls i Astana den 29 juni–3 juli på inbjudan av Kazakstans parlament. Temat för sessionen var Öppenhet i OSSE:s område (Transparency in the OSCE area). Arbetet i utskotten med huvudresolutionen och övriga resolutioner, föreslagna av medlemmarna, bearbetades i respektive utskott och antogs sedan i plenum. Alla resolutioner finns samlade i den s.k. Astanadeklarationen, vilken biläggs. Församlingens president Göran Lennmarker ledde debatten i plenum och framhöll i sitt inledningsanförande regionens betydelse för OSSE och välkomnade Kazakstans kommande ordförandeskap i OSSE 2010. Detta var ett bra tillfälle att utveckla samarbetet mellan Europa och Centralasien och att förstärka demokratin och öppenheten i regionen. I plenum rapporterade Tone Tingsgård från sitt genusuppdrag och ledde ett informellt möte om genusfrågor som hölls under sessionen. En resolution om stärkandet av OSSE PF:s roll i organisationen antogs i plenum.
I slutet av sessionen valdes Joao Soares, Portugal, till president för församlingen för ett år t.o.m. den årliga sessionen i Vilnius 2009.
Höstmötet hölls i Toronto den 18–21 september där en särskild debatt om situationen i Georgien arrangerades med bl.a. Georgiens utrikesminister och Rysslands FN-ambassadör som inbjudna talare. I sin roll som särskilt sändebud för situationen i Georgien deltog Göran Lennmarker. Han redogjorde för ett besök i regionen och framförde sina åsikter och tankar om krisen, varnade för ett nytt krig och sa att etnisk rensning till alla pris måste undvikas.
Walburga Habsburg Douglas ledde en session om den mänskliga dimensionen där bl.a. valövervakning diskuterades. Både Tone Tingsgård och Göran Lennmarker deltog i den diskussionen och pekade på vikten av genusbalans i OSSE:s institutioner respektive att alla valövervakningar ska genomföras enligt samma mönster, oavsett land. Fredrick Federley gjorde ett inlägg under migrationsdiskussionen där han uppmanade länderna att ta emot fler flyktingar från Irak. I sessionen ekonomi- och miljödimensionen varnade Göran Lennmarker för protektionism som lätt blir följden av ekonomisk kris.
I anslutning till höstmötet och inför det stundande presidentvalet i USA arrangerades ett seminarium i Washington den 22–23 september. Mötet var en politisk genomgång inför presidentvalet med högt uppsatta företrädare för både demokrater och republikaner, vilka gav sin syn på det kommande valet. Från Sverige deltog Walburga Habsburg Douglas och Göran Lennmarker.
Permanenta kommittén möttes den 19 februari, den 5 juli och den 29 september.
Byrån möttes den 14 april i Köpenhamn och den 3 december i Helsingfors.
Riksdagens OSSE-delegation hade fyra sammanträden under året.
Under vintermötet presenterade de tre rapportörerna utkast till sin respektive rapport och resolution att läggas fram vid sommarsessionen och fick synpunkter från de närvarande parlamentarikerna på innehållet.
Vid sommarsessionen lade sedan varje utskotts rapportör fram en resolution baserad på sin rapport över det övergripande temat Öppenhet inom OSSE:s område. I tillägg till denna diskuterades i varje utskott ett antal resolutioner utöver årets tema, vilka föreslagits av parlamentarikerna.
I varje utskott rapporterade vice ordförande om den nationella uppföljningen av Kievdeklarationen och man konstaterade att vissa framsteg gjorts men att frågan om OSSE PF:s status fortfarande var olöst, att genusbalansen inte var tillfredsställande, att man inte funnit någon lösning på de olösta konflikterna samt att intolerans och diskriminering liksom människohandel fortfarande var allvarliga problem.
4.2.1 Utskott I Politiska frågor och säkerhetsärenden
Rapportören presenterade sin rapport som pekade på det nödvändiga i att reglera verksamheten för icke-yrkesmilitärer och privata bevakningsföretag, vilka i allt större utsträckning anlitas i medlemsstaterna. Den OSSE-uppförandekod som finns för demokratisk kontroll av militära förband täcker inte denna nya verksamhet. I debatten framhölls vikten av att all verksamhet av det här slaget regleras i lag och att arbetet sker på ett öppet sätt.
Den slutliga resolutionen uppmanar medlemsländerna att se över metoderna i förhållande till folkrätten, att inrätta bindande regler vid användandet av icke-militära trupper och bevakningsföretag i väpnade konflikter och i fredsbevarande missioner. Den innehåller också förslag om en studie med goda exempel på demokratisk övervakning av sådan verksamhet i medlemsländerna att presenteras vid vintermötet i februari 2009. Rapporten betonar också vikten av demokratisk kontroll i europeiska försvars- och säkerhetspolitiska frågor.
En resolution om säkerhet i Georgien orsakade lång debatt. Ryssland försökte inledningsvis stoppa resolutionen som man inte ansåg hörde hemma i PF. En mycket animerad debatt följde och de många delegater som deltog uppmanade till dialog mellan Ryssland och Georgien och värnade om Georgiens suveränitet. Även resolutionen om Afghanistan engagerade många där alla var överens om betydelsen av fortsatt och ökat internationellt stöd. Bättre koordinering av insatserna var dock nödvändigt för att få full effekt. Enskilda initiativ av parlamentariker och stöd i form av övervakning vid de kommande parlaments- och presidentvalen 2010 föreslogs också.
Samtliga resolutioner kunde antas efter vissa ändringar.
4.2.2 Resolutioner antagna av utskott I
Huvudresolutionen Öppenhet i OSSE:s område.
Resolution om Afghanistan.
Resolution om förbud mot klusterbomber.
Resolution om säkerhet och brott i etern.
Resolution om säkerhet i Georgien.
4.3 Utskott II Ekonomi och miljö
Rapportören presenterade deklarationens andra avsnitt som behandlade de i högsta grad aktuella klimatförändringarna i världen.
I den mycket engagerade diskussionen framhölls förgiftningen från jordbruksnäringen som extremt svår. Den kemiska industrin stöddes emellertid av vissa och man ansåg att satsningar bör riktas mot järnvägstrafik och geotermisk energi. Ett mycket stort problem är den ökande vattenbristen, medlemmarna var ense i nödvändigheten att avskaffa buteljerat vatten. Den allt större matbristen poängterades också och en konferens i ämnet efterlystes.
Deklarationens avsnitt antogs enhälligt efter diskussion och mindre ändringar. Tone Tingsgårds ändringsförslag att i texten hänvisa till OSSE:s jämställdhetsplan från 2004 godkändes.
Sju tilläggsförslag inom utskottets område ekonomi, vetenskap, teknologi och miljö hade tilldelats utskottet, samtliga antogs.
4.3.1 Resolutioner antagna av utskott II
Huvudresolutionen Öppenhet i OSSE:s område.
Resolution om otillåtna flygtransporter av små och lätta vapen.
Resolution om frihandel i Medelhavsområde.
Resolution om utvidgad handel mellan Nordamerika och Europa.
Resolution om vattenhantering i OSSE:s område.
Resolution om råämnesförbrukande industrier.
Resolution om Tjernobyl.
Resolution om skuldavskrivningar till svårt skuldsatta länder.
4.4 Utskott III demokrati och mänskliga rättigheter
Walburga Habsburg Douglas presenterade sin rapport och dithörande resolution. Hon fick starkt gensvar för sin breda ansats. Att öppna arkiven och ”come to terms” med det förflutna var väsentligt. Även om detta av olika skäl inte var genomförbart i alla länder var ambitionen bland delegaterna att samarbeta med målet att samtliga existerande arkiv ska öppnas.
Tone Tingsgård presenterade sin tilläggsresolution Kvinnor och våld och framhöll att orsaken till kvinnovåld beror på en obalanserad könsfördelning med bristande jämställdhet. Cecilia Wigström påminde om ländernas åtaganden i FN:s deklaration 1993 om våld mot kvinnor och menade att lagstiftning krävdes för att nå målen. Hon hade lagt fram ett ändringsförslag om att detta skulle ingå i resolutionen, vilket godkändes. Cecilia Wigström gjorde också ett inlägg i debatten kring en resolution om valövervakning där hon framhöll församlingens viktiga roll samtidigt som hon beklagade att samarbetet med ODIHR inte alltid fungerade. Hon påpekade också att det är varje parlamentarikers ansvar att fullfölja sina åtaganden vid en valövervakning.
4.4.1 Resolutioner antagna av utskott III
Huvudresolutionen Öppenhet i OSSE:s område.
Resolution om våld mot kvinnor.
Resolution om bekämpning av sexuellt utnyttjande av barn.
Resolution om invandrares sociala och ekonomiska bidrag till samhället.
Resolution om bekämpande av antisemitism.
Resolution om hungersnöden i Ukraina 1933.
Resolution om bekämpande av all slags människohandel och
att särskilt se till utsatta barns behov i detta sammanhang.
Resolution om valövervakning.
4.5 Församlingens budget
Församlingen beslutar om sin egen verksamhet och budget. Verksamheten finansieras genom bidrag från medlemsländernas parlament. Församlingens budget 2007–2008 (budgetåret börjar den 1 oktober) uppgår till 2 855 985 euro. Den svenska delegationens bidrag utgör 92 534 euro, vilket motsvarar 3,240 %.
5 Församlingens bidrag till demokratisk utveckling
En viktig uppgift för OSSE PF är att bidra till en fredlig lösning av kriser och att förebygga konflikter. Olösta konflikter hotar stabiliteten, säkerheten och den ekonomiska utvecklingen i OSSE:s medlemskrets och närområden och utgör ett hot mot välståndet i hela regionen. Församlingens uppdrag är att bidra till breda diskussioner om säkerhetshot och genom samtal och samarbete bistå i att lösa konflikter.
Församlingens president Göran Lennmarker besökte under året länderna i södra Kaukasus och Ukraina för att på plats få en bild av situationen och ha diskussioner med centrala parlamentariker och företrädare för ländernas regeringar. I samma syfte besökte Lennmarker i juni partnerlandet Afghanistan.
5.1 Församlingens ad hoc-arbetsgrupper
Inom församlingen finns fem ad hoc-arbetsgrupper för frågor rörande Vitryssland, Abchazien, Moldavien och samarbetet med OSSE:s institutioner.
Ett sedan länge för 2008 planerat seminarium i Vitryssland sköts upp till 2009. En lägesrapport om landet samt konflikten rörande Transnistrien presenterades av gruppens ordförande vid möte med den permanenta kommittén.
6 Särskilda representanter
Församlingens president har rätt att utse församlingens medlemmar till särskild representant för en specifik fråga. De utvalda ska avrapportera sin verksamhet vid den årliga sessionen. Under 2008 hade församlingen elva särskilda representanter nämligen
Tone Tingsgård som genusrepresentant.
Göran Lennmarker som representant för konflikten i Nagorno-Karabach.
Alcee L. Hastings (USA) som särskild representant för Medelhavsfrågor.
Anne-Marie Lizin (Belgien) som representant för frågan om Guantánamo.
Christopher Smith (USA) som representant för frågor om människohandel.
Pétur Blöndal (Island) som representant för budgetfrågor inom OSSE.
Roberto Battelli (Slovenien) som särskild representant för Öst- och Centraleuropa.
Kimmo Kiljunen (Finland) som särskild representant för Centralasien.
Hilda Solis (USA) som särskild representant för migrationsfrågor.
Carlo Vizzini (Italien) som särskild representant i kampen mot organiserad brottslighet.
Michael Voisin (Frankrike) som särskild representant för Afghanistan.
I augusti 2008 utsågs Göran Lennmarker till särskilt sändebud för situationen i Georgien.
6.1 Genus och jämställdhet
Tone Tingsgård rapporterade i plenum och hänvisade till OSCE Gender Balance Report 2008 som redovisar kvinnors representation inom OSSE där ingen förbättring under året kunde noteras. Samma sak gällde också för församlingen. Två tredjedelar av utskottens (politiska och ekonomiska) poster liksom vice president-posterna innehas av män. Hon sade vidare att arbetet med att nå jämställdhet måste börja på hemmaplan i parlamentet. Därför skulle hon vid kommande möte med den permanenta kommittén föreslå en ändring i PA:s statuter vad gällde genusbalans och rätten att rösta.
Tingsgård ledde ett informellt lunchmöte om genusfrågor i OSSE. Dessa årliga möten innebär en möjlighet att diskutera genusfrågor och uppmuntra kvinnor att kandidera till poster inom församlingen.
6.2 Södra Kaukasus och Nagorno-Karabach
Göran Lennmarker rapporterade vid höstmötet från sin resa till södra Kaukasus i september där han haft möten med representanter för ländernas parlament och höga regeringsföreträdare för att på plats få en bild av situationen och föra diskussioner.
Senare under hösten besökte Lennmarker Moskva och träffade där centrala parlamentariker och vice utrikesministern för att diskutera möjligheterna att etablera en parlamentarisk grupp med företrädare för både Ryssland och Georgien för att förutsättningslöst arbeta för att få visshet om vad som verkligen hände den 8 augusti.
Fria och rättvisa val är ett viktigt instrument för att uppnå demokrati och ett mycket viktigt inslag i församlingens arbete. Sedan församlingens tillkomst har man genomfört valövervakningar i samarbete med Office for Democratic Institutions and Human Rights (ODIHR) samt ofta i samarbete också med Europarådets parlamentariska församling, Europaparlamentet och under senare år även med Natos parlamentariska församling. Under 2008 har fyra parlamentsval och tre presidentval övervakats av OSSE:s parlamentariska församling. Vid fem av dessa deltog medlemmar från riksdagens OSSE-delegation och vid två av dessa deltog ledamöter som inte är medlemmar i OSSE-delegationen.
Övervakningen av parlamentsvalet i Georgien den 5 januari leddes av Alcee L. Hastings (USA) och samlade ett femtiotal parlamentariker, däribland Peter Eriksson (mp), Egon Frid (v), Krister Hammarbergh (m), Birgitta Ohlsson (fp) och Jessica Polfjärd (m) från den svenska riksdagen. Enligt observatörerna genomfördes valet i princip i enlighet med internationella krav på demokratiska val, men man påpekade samtidigt att vissa förhållanden skyndsamt måste åtgärdas.
Den 19 februari hölls presidentval i Armenien med ett trettiotal parlamentariker från OSSE PF närvarande. Valobservationen leddes av Anne-Marie Lizin från Belgien. Ingen från den svenska riksdagen deltog i övervakningen. Valet hade en del brister och kunde inte anses vara ett val genomfört enligt demokratiska normer.
I Serbien hölls parlamentsval den 11 maj. Övervakningen leddes av Roberto Batelli från Slovenien. Ett tjugotal parlamentariker från OSSE PF deltog, dock ingen från den svenska riksdagen. Valen genomfördes enligt de internationella normerna och ansågs fria och rättvisa.
Den 21 maj arrangerades parlamentsval i Georgien. Övervakningen leddes av Joao Soares, Portugal. 65 parlamentariker från OSSE PF deltog, och i delegationen ingick Walburga Habsburg Douglas (m), Margareta Cederfelt (m), Peter Jeppsson (s) samt Mildred Thulin (c). Valet genomfördes inte helt enligt internationell standard men avsevärda framsteg sedan presidentvalet i januari noterades.
I f.d. jugoslaviska republiken Makedonien hölls parlamentsval den 1 juni. Från OSSE PF deltog 15 parlamentariker, och övervakningen leddes av Pia Christmas-Moller, Danmark. Ingen svensk parlamentariker deltog. Valen, som kantades av flera allvarliga incidenter, genomfördes inte i demokratisk anda.
Parlamentsval hölls i Vitryssland den 1 oktober. Anne-Marie Lizin från Belgien ledde OSSE PF:s delegation som bestod av 62 parlamentariker. Från riksdagen deltog Urban Ahlin (s), Annelie Enochson (kd), Christian Holm (m), Peter Jeppsson (s), Åsa Lindestam (s), Cecilia Wigström (fp), Oskar Öholm (m) samt Åke Sandström (c). Valen genomfördes inte i enlighet med OSSE:s och Europarådets krav på demokratiska val. Vissa framsteg noterades dock.
Den 4 november hölls presidentval i USA. Församlingens president Joao Soares ledde de 95 parlamentariker från OSSE-kretsen som deltog i observationen. Från riksdagen deltog Walburga Habsburg Douglas (m), Annelie Enochson (kd), Håkan Juholt (s), Göran Lennmarker (m) och Tone Tingsgård (s). Valen genomfördes enligt internationell standard.
8 Samarbete inom och utom församligen
8.1 Samarbetet i Medelhavsregionen
Den parlamentariska församlingen har under åren antagit ett stort antal resolutioner om samarbetet i Medelhavsområdet. Den särskilda relation som OSSE har till grannländerna vid Medelhavet har då noterats och det ömsesidiga beroendet av säkerhet har betonats. Församlingen vill bidra till ett närmare samarbete inom Medelhavsområdet för att där främja OSSE:s normer och principer. Detta ska ske genom ökad politisk dialog, ekonomiskt samarbete och kulturutbyte samt genom starkare demokratiska institutioner och respekt för de mänskliga rättigheterna. Som ett led i dessa strävanden besökte Göran Lennmarker med delegation i februari Israel, Palestina och Jordanien och i mars Marocko och Tunisien.
Varje år arrangeras ett särskilt Medelhavsforum där församlingens alla delegationer kan delta i en årlig konferens över ett för regionen aktuellt tema. Det femte Medelhavsforumet ägde rum i Toronto under höstmötet och behandlade det franska initiativet inom Barcelonaprocessen.
8.2 Samarbete med andra parlamentariska församlingar
Vid valobservationer sker ett nära samarbete inte bara mellan OSSE PF och ODIHR utan också med Europarådets och stundtals också med Natos parlamentariska församling samt Europaparlamentet.
I maj månad deltog president Lennmarker i Natos parlamentariska församlings session i Berlin.
Sveriges delegation till OSSE:s parlamentariska församling
Walburga Habsburg Douglas (m)
Tone Tingsgård (s)
Urban Ahlin (s) ersattes i december av Aleksander Gabelic
Göran Lennmarker (m)
Åsa Lindestam (s)
Håkan Juholt (s)
Fredrick Federley (c)
Cecilia Wigström (fp)
Peter Jeppsson (s)
Kent Olsson (m)
Peter Jonsson (s)
Anan König Jerlmyr (m)
Marie Nordén (s)
Eva Selin Lindgren (c)
Annelie Enochson (kd)
Bosnien och Hercegovina
F.d. jugoslaviska republiken
OF THE OSCE PARLIAMENTARY
ASSEMBLY AND RESOLUTIONS ADOPTED AT THE SEVENTEENTH ANNUAL SESSION
ASTANA, 29 JUNE to 3 JULY 2008
We, Parliamentarians of the OSCE participating States, have met in annual session in Astana on 29 June to 3 July 2008 as the Parliamentary dimension of the OSCE to assess developments and challenges relating to security and co-operation, in particular on Transparency in the OSCE, and we offer the following views to the OSCE Ministers.
We wish every success to the next OSCE Ministerial Council in Helsinki on 4 and 5 December 2008 and bring to its attention the following declaration and recommendations.
TRANSPARENCY IN THE OSCE
POLITICAL AFFAIRS AND SECURITY
1. Welcoming the significant contribution of the OSCE Code of Conduct on politicomilitary aspects of security to the reform of the security sectors in the OSCE participating States,
2. Noting the change in the security environment and the emergence of new threats,
3. Acknowledging the security needs of participating States and the right to react while complying with international commitments,
4. Recognizing the growing usage of private military companies and private security companies in different countries in the implementation of defence, development and security programmes,
5. Referring to the limited provisions of the Code of Conduct with regard to the democratic control of armed forces and to the absence of a definition of armed forces in the Code,
6. Noting the absence of any specific regulatory framework for private military companies and private security companies in international law,
7. Expressing concern about the lack of parliamentary oversight regarding private military companies and private security companies, which is contrary to the principles of the Code of Conduct on democratic control of forces11 and limits the most legitimate role of parliaments,
8. Underlining the relevance of international law, in particular international humanitarian law and human rights law,
9. Conscious of the precarious situation of different legal settings for armed forces and private military companies and private security companies and the uncertainty regarding the applicable rules for private military companies and private security companies operating in situations of armed conflict and post-conflict situations,
10. Regretting the absence of a detailed discussion on the use of private military companies and private security companies in situations of armed conflict and postconflict situations,
The OSCE Parliamentary Assembly:
11. Calls for a detailed discussion among all relevant actors on the use of private military companies and private security companies in situations of armed conflict and postconflict situations;
12. Requests the Secretary General of the OSCE to undertake a study for the next Winter Meeting of the PA in 2009 elaborating on the current use of private military companies and private security companies in situations of armed conflict and postconflict situations, on the one hand, and illustrating best practices in democratic control and identifying shortcomings on the other, taking account of the work carried out by the Swiss Government and the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) and other relevant initiatives;
13. Calls upon participating States contracting private military companies and private security companies in situations of armed conflict and post-conflict situations to include in such contracts the obligations under international humanitarian law and human rights law, together with the resulting code of conduct and legal liability, and to adopt national regulations and good practices;
14. Urges participating States to extend their parliamentary oversight to private military companies and private security companies;
15. Underlines the importance of transparency to secure that United Nations Security Council resolution 1325 on women, peace and security is implnemented in private military companies and private security companies;
16. Recommends as a first step the development of a manual on the use of private military companies and private security companies for missions in armed conflict and post-conflict situations;
17. Emphasizes the need for a co-ordinated and coherent approach with other international actors on the basis of the forthcoming text of the Swiss Government and the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) on Legal Obligations and Good Practices of private military companies and private security companies and other relevant initiatives with a view to helping States apply internationally agreed principles of democracy and the rule of law to their national security policies and doctrines;
18. Calls upon participating States to develop, within their jurisdiction, binding rules and procedures on the use of private military companies and private security companies in armed conflict and post-conflict missions;
19. Calls upon each Minister of Defence to provide an assessment of the private military companies and private security companies used by his or her armed forces.
ECONOMIC AFFAIRS, SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY
20. Welcoming the work of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), particularly the scientific conclusions of its fourth appraisal report, which will contribute positively to understanding climate change as a phenomenon, including its effects and risks,
21. Taking note of the report of the economist Nicholas Stern on the long-term cost of global warming,
22. Expressing concern over the impact that accentuated security challenges related to climate change, more particularly droughts, water scarcity and desertification, may have on highly sensitive areas such as the Eastern Mediterranean,
23. Considering effective water management to be crucial for the prevalence of security and stability in the OSCE area and beyond,
24. Stressing the need for enhanced synergy and co-ordination towards sound and effective water management policies, in accordance with international standards elaborated in this field,
25. Considering that the environmental threat is not confined to global warming,
26. Noting the ever greater threats to the environment posed by intensive farming, uncontrolled industrialization, and industrial or nuclear accidents,
27. Recognizing that problems of scarcity and high prices of food are causing social tensions across the globe,
28. Understanding that only concerted and timely action can avert disaster,
29. Bearing in mind the importance of boosting the use of renewable energy sources,
30. Noting that human activities such as the aforementioned industrialization and the new modes of transport (motor vehicle, air transport), requiring as they do the combustion of fossil fuel, are mainly responsible for global warming through the increased concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere,
31. Recalling the Belgrade Declaration on “Environment for Europe” and the opportunity offered by environmental co-operation to help establish relations of confidence and develop peace processes,
32. Recalling the November 2007 Madrid Ministerial Council Declaration on Environment and Security,
33. Welcoming the role that the OSCE can play in promoting environmental security and its complementary action with the United Nations in combating climate change,
34. Recalling the adoption of Recommendation 1823 of the Council of Europe on global warming and ecological disasters,
35. Taking note, with the adoption of the European Climate Plan, of the driving role of the European Union in combating climate change,
36. Remembering that all these phenomena have a hand in exacerbating pre-existing tensions and adding to instability, thereby threatening security,
37. Welcoming the successive efforts of the corresponding United Nations bodies (United Nations Environmental Programme, International Organization for Migration, IPCC) and of other international organizations in environmental monitoring, including the Global Environment Outlook Year Book and the OECD report Environmental Outlook to 2030,
38. Recalling the conclusions established in the report of the High Representative on the common foreign and security policy and the European Commission on security risks posed by climate change, at the European Council session of March 2008,
The OSCE Parliamentary Assembly:
39. Calls on non-signatory participating States to sign and ratify the Kyoto Protocol;
40. Urges participating States and partners to support the process initiated in Bali in order to secure an international agreement on climate change after 2012, notably the establishment of quantitative targets and binding commitments with respect to the reduction of greenhouse gases, taking into account the differences in national circumstances;
41. Appeals for encouragement to be given to research and the development of technologies that are less carbon-intensive and improve energy efficiency;
42. Encourages participating States to develop alternatives to fossil fuels, in particular by promoting renewable energy sources;
43. Calls on participating States to commit themselves to a global energy transformation towards energy efficiency, renewable energies and energy savings;
44. Calls on the Ministerial Council of the OSCE to provide the Parliamentary Assembly with a list of radioactive waste sites in the OSCE region;
45. Recommends an exchange of views on the national energy strategies of participating States through the holding of conferences;
46. Endorses the development of less polluting forms of transport, with encouragement for rail and river transport and tax incentives for the purchase of “clean” vehicles;
47. Invites participating States to launch new housing programmes, with emphasis on heating or air-conditioning by means of clean energy sources and improving the energy efficiency of homes;
48. Appeals to participating States to make sustainable development a priority, considering that these efforts will bear fruit only if they are part of an overall international approach, and to implement the 2004 Action Plan for the Promotion of Gender Equality as a means to secure innovative work, which considers the disparate impacts of environmental burdens and climate change on minorities, women, children and migrants;
49. Encourages participating States to pursue climate-friendly economic and trade policies that guard against the migration of domestic carbon-intensive industries to other parts of the world, prevent loss of market share to more carbon-intensive foreign producers and create incentives for other countries to reduce emissions;
50. Endorses the incorporation in agricultural policy of climate change and environmental risks, notably by promoting integrated farming, avoiding deforestation, and preserving the natural heritage, biodiversity and clean water resources;
51. Urges participating States to collaborate on research to ascertain the reasons for global pollinator decline and its subsequent threat to the global food supply and, where appropriate, co-ordinate regional responses to mitigate pollinator decline;
52. Calls on participating States to co-ordinate their actions in order to minimize the impact of food shortages and ensure the adequacy of food supply;
53. Urges integrated management of catchment basins and the promotion of cross-border co-operation in respect of watercourses;
54. Encourages the setting up of surveillance and early warning networks for floods or droughts;
55. Calls on participating States to undertake better waste management through recourse to recycling and by limiting waste production;
56. Urges participating States to draw up plans for co-ordination in the event of nuclear accident, and to intensify cross-border co-operation in civil security;
57. Calls on participating States and partners to support the action of the OSCE, in particular the Environment and Security Initiative and its programmes in Central Asia, South Eastern Europe and the Caucasus;
58. Encourages all participating States to co-operate in transferring technical know-how on the use of renewable energy resources, such as geothermal and tidal power, and also on energy research and development, including the mapping of energy potential and planning, on the basis of the precautionary principle.
DEMOCRACY, HUMAN RIGHTS AND
59. Bearing in mind the dramatic transformation that took place during the collapse of communism in Eastern Europe and former Soviet republics and particularly the profound psychological effects of these changes,
60. Stressing in this regard the importance of working for a reconciliation with each nation’s own past in an open and public process,
61. Recognizing the psychological and societal parallels to the end of the Second World War, and noting the relatively successful process of coming to terms with history – “Vergangenheitsbewältigung” – undertaken in some OSCE countries following the Second World War,
62. Recognizing the importance of fully opening all archives to improve the transparency and accuracy of historical studies,
The OSCE Parliamentary Assembly:
63. Calls upon all participating States to work for greater transparency in:
a. the organization of and access to political and historical archives,
b. the legislative process,
c. the election process,
d. the administrative process,
e. work in Parliament,
f. the rule of law;
g. the activity of international organizations;
64. Trusts that this increased transparency would contribute to:
a. improved education, especially in history,
b. greater freedom of speech, media, expression and religion or belief,
c. greater freedom to establish political parties, NGOs and civil society bodies,
d. a more effective fight against corruption,
e. greater international peace and security,
f. greater opportunity for interfaith, intercultural and interethnic understanding;
65. Affirms the right of individuals to appeal to an effective remedy, i.e. high-level courts, constitutional courts or other constitutional bodies against laws that endanger these fundamental freedoms;
66. Calls upon all OSCE state bodies working with historical and political archives to grant as full access as possible to all archives to researchers and interested individuals, consistent with the terms or agreements under which materials were acquired or received through purchase, transfer or donation; and to work towards the digitization and sharing of all relevant documents with the country or countries most directly affected by their content, enabling full study by those most interested;
67. Calls upon all OSCE participating States to work actively and constructively with each other on a bilateral basis to ensure the smooth and swift return of archives to their countries of origin, and to draft, adopt and implement any legislation needed;
68. Encourages the establishment of joint history commissions between participating States, composed of their historians and experts, including where necessary those of third countries, to conduct research in the relevant historical, political and military archives in order to shed objective and scientific light on contentious episodes in the history of participating States, with a view to further contributing to transparency and mutual understanding;
69. Recalls that all state administrations must, in their running, safeguard the fundamental rights of the individual;
70. Affirms the importance of legislation that protects the rights of individuals within state bodies and private enterprises to openly call public attention to severe malpractice and illegal activities;
71. Encourages the active involvement of political parties in election administration processes to guarantee the transparency of electoral processes;
72. Stresses the right of parliamentarians to vote according to their conscience;
73. Emphasizes that all government actions should be based on laws enacted through an open and transparent process and also based on international agreements and commitments;
74. Recognizing that equal access to work by all individuals contributes to transparency, calls upon the OSCE and participating States to fully implement the 2004 OSCE Action Plan for the Promotion of Gender Equality;
75. Reaffirms the right of journalists to investigate and write about all actions, including any malpractice, undertaken by state bodies;
76. Calls upon all participating States to ensure that journalists are able to conduct their work without fear of repression or retribution;
77. Affirms that journalists and media professionals must be regarded as civilians when working in areas of armed conflict and must be respected and protected as such;
78. Requests participating States, in times of armed conflict, to respect the professional independence and the rights of journalists and media professionals;
79. Underlines the right of civil society, e.g. political parties and NGOs, to organize itself without the imposition of unnecessary and excessive requirements by state bodies.
TRANSPARENCY AND FURTHER OSCE
REFORM: REINFORCEMENT OF PARLIAMENTARY
PARTICIPATION IN THE ORGANIZATION
1 Convinced that the OSCE is a valuable and relevant international organization that should continue to play a critical role in promoting stability and security in Europe,
2 Underlining the need for the OSCE to carry on further reform aiming at reducing the democratic deficit, strengthening transparency and accountability, enhancing the role of the Parliamentary Assembly and increasing its effectiveness and strengthening co-operation between the Parliamentary Assembly and the executive structures, including its involvement in the decision-making process, and therefore reaffirming the Resolution on Status and Role of the OSCE Parliamentary Assembly, as contained in the 2007 OSCE Parliamentary Assembly Kyiv Declaration,
3 Recalling the recommendations put forward by the OSCE Panel of Eminent Persons and the OSCE PA Colloquium on the Future of the OSCE in 2005, including the following suggestions:
The Secretary General, as well as and in consultation with the Chairman-in-Office, should be able to speak for the Organization and to make policy pronouncements as well as appropriate criticisms when OSCE commitments are not observed.
The OSCE should have legal personality.
The OSCE should improve its ability to make timely decisions through adjusting its decision-making procedure.
The OSCE PA should be integrated into the OSCE decision-making and consultation processes.
The OSCE PA should undertake greater political initiatives on its own responsibility, in co-operation and co-ordination with the Chairmanship and the Permanent Council and it should have access to all information to be able to perform an effective oversight or monitoring of the implementation of OSCE commitments as well as decisions.
The budget must be adopted in a timely fashion and be commensurate with OSCE political objectives. A multi-year financial plan should be established in order to pursue longer term strategies. Normal parliamentary practice, at both the national and international level (Council of Europe, European Parliament) would require the OSCE PA’s approval of the budget.
The confirmation of the Secretary General by the OSCE PA once nominated, by an absolute or weighted majority vote and after consultations, would be an appropriate answer to the increasing challenges of multilateral organizations.
It is essential that the ODIHR and the OSCE PA co-operate in order to maintain and ensure the independence of the OSCE election observation, which has been recently eroded. Election assessments should be expanded further in Western democracies. Double standards in electoral observations should be avoided.
Professional standards should be raised in all OSCE structures. In order to attract and retain performing staff, fixed term limits on duration of service should be eliminated. At the same time, reliance on seconded personnel should be reduced. However, when seconded personnel are assigned to Field Missions, governments should ensure that such assignment is for a substantial period of time – at least one or two years.
The OSCE should consider exporting its comprehensive security concept, expertise such as election observation and assistance and sharing its values and experience beyond the OSCE area,
4. Aware that if the OSCE wants to continue playing a role as a key promoter of security and stability based on the development of democracy, it needs to further strengthen the role of its own Parliamentary Assembly,
5. Bearing in mind the preparatory work done by six parliamentary CSCE conferences organized by the Inter-Parliamentary Union (Helsinki 1973, Belgrade 1975, Vienna 1978, Brussels 1980, Bonn 1986, Vienna 1991) for the creation of the OSCE’s parliamentary dimension, which resulted in proposals to give the OSCE’s parliamentary dimension similar functions to the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe,
The OSCE Parliamentary Assembly:
6. Requests the governments of the 56 OSCE participating States to fully commit themselves, at the highest political levels, to the full implementation of all of their OSCE commitments and to future strengthening of the Organization;
7. Calls upon the participating States to make better use of the Parliamentary Assembly as a key element in the organization’s efforts to be credible in promoting democracy, while respecting its autonomy as it comprises elected parliamentarians;
8. Requests the Permanent Council to regularly discuss and take into consideration the initiatives taken by the Parliamentary Assembly;
9. Tasks the Chairmanship and the participating States to consider issuing fact-finding and negotiating mandates to ad hoc working groups of the Parliamentary Assembly;
10. Urges the Chairman-in-Office to convene a special meeting of the OSCE Permanent Council, with the participation of representatives of the Parliamentary Assembly, to discuss the implementation of the recommendations put forward by the OSCE Panel of Eminent Persons and the OSCE PA Colloquium on the Future of the OSCE in 2005;
11. Recommends that the consensus rule should be modified for decisions related to personnel, budget and administration, and that in all other cases a country which blocks or holds up consensus must do so openly and be prepared to defend its position publicly;
12. Calls upon the OSCE PA to monitor closely the member parliaments’ activities in exercising genuine control over their governments;
13. Urges members of the OSCE PA regularly to engage with relevant senior government officials responsible for formulating policy relating to the OSCE with the aim of advancing proposals included in the Assembly’s declarations;
14. Calls upon national parliaments to strengthen follow-up mechanisms to OSCE PA Declarations;
15. Requests member parliaments to hold a debate after each OSCE PA Annual Session on its outcome and to report back to the OSCE PA.
16. Invites the national delegations to the OSCE PA to strengthen its operational transparency by defining the procedures for early voting for appointments to the Bureau, a practice which currently lacks any legal framework.
BANNING CLUSTER MUNITIONS
IN PARTICIPATING STATES OF THE OSCE AREA
1. Stressing that cluster munitions have killed and mutilated mostly civilians and that they remain a permanent threat with unacceptable humanitarian and economic consequences,
2. Defining cluster munitions as munitions that are designed to disperse or release explosive sub-munitions, including those explosive sub-munitions, as defined in article 2, paragraph 2, of the Convention on Cluster Munitions adopted in Dublin on 30 May 2008,
3. Reaffirming the Declaration of the Oslo Conference on Cluster Munitions, by which States committed themselves to conclude a legally binding instrument,
4. Welcoming the results of the Dublin Conference,
The OSCE Parliamentary Assembly:
5. Invites participating States to take all relevant national measures to prohibit the use, development, production, acquisition, stockpiling, retention or transfer of cluster munitions in line with the Convention on Cluster Munitions adopted in Dublin on 30 May 2008;
6. Encourages participating States to destroy or ensure the destruction of all cluster munitions under their jurisdictions and control, in line with the provisions of the Convention on Cluster Munitions adopted in Dublin on 30 May 2008;
7. Calls upon participating States to accede as soon as possible to the Convention on Cluster Munitions adopted in Dublin on 30 May 2008 by the majority of United Nations Member States, and to commit themselves to signing the Convention in Oslo in December 2008.
CYBER SECURITY AND CYBER CRIME
1. Recalling that in the contemporary world armed conflicts are not the only breeding ground for threats against States and citizens,
2. Recognizing the essential role of co-operation between all governments in order to successfully cope with modern security risks,
3. Underlining the fact that cyber attacks have become a serious security threat, which cannot be underestimated,
4. Recognizing that cyber attacks can be a great challenge to governments, because they may destabilize society, jeopardize the availability of public services and the functioning of vital state infrastructure,
5. Reiterating that any country which relies extensively on information and communication technology may fall victim to cyber crime,
6. Welcoming the discussions in international fora on how to respond effectively to the abuse of cyber space for criminal and in particular terrorist purposes,
7. Recognizing that cyber security and cyber crime have become a matter of substantial concern to inter alia the Council of Europe, the EU, NATO and the UN General Assembly,
8. Reaffirming the role of the OSCE as a regional arrangement under Chapter VIII of the UN Charter and a key instrument for early warning, conflict prevention, crisis management and post-conflict rehabilitation in its area,
9. Reiterating its concern over the persistence of cyber attacks in various places of the OSCE area,
10. Recognizing the previous work done in the OSCE with respect to various aspects of cyber security and cyber crime, and in particular related to terrorist use of the Internet,
11. Underlining the urgent need for the international community to increase co-operation and information exchange in the field of cyber security and cyber crime, because only with joint and co-ordinated efforts is it possible to effectively respond to the threats originating from cyber space,
12. Stressing that the Council of Europe Convention on Cybercrime of 2001 is the only legally binding multilateral instrument specifically addressing computer-related crime, but that it has been ratified by only 22 States,
13. Welcoming the discussions and decisions initiated by NATO, the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe, and elsewhere,
14. Welcoming the fact that several OSCE participating States have already developed and adopted countermeasures against various kinds of cyber threats,
15. Emphasizing the commitment of OSCE participating States to respect and foster the principles of international law,
The OSCE Parliamentary Assembly:
16. Expresses its regret that the international community has not been able to agree on specific countermeasures against cyber threats so far;
17. Urges the parliamentarians of the OSCE participating States to intensify their efforts in convincing the parliaments and governments in their countries that threats originating from cyber space are one of the most serious security challenges of present time, which can jeopardize the way of life of modern societies and the whole of civilization;
18. Urges governments to condemn cyber attacks on a moral basis, as analogous to trafficking in human beings or to intellectual property piracy, and to create universal rules of conduct in cyber space;
19. Maintains that the results of a cyber attack against vital state infrastructure do not differ in nature from those of a conventional aggressive act;
20. Urges OSCE participating States and all other members of the international community to consider joining the Council of Europe Convention on Cybercrime and unconditionally follow its provisions;
21. Urges OSCE participating States to consider joining also the Council of Europe Convention on the Prevention of Terrorism which offers additional instruments for preventing cyber attacks by terrorist groups and use of the Internet for terrorist purposes;
22. Draws attention to the need to revise existing legal acts concerning cyber security and cyber crime and to find supplementary means, including harmonisation of the relevant legislation of States, and to make international co-operation in the field of cyber security and cyber crime more efficient;
23. Urges all parties involved to search, in good faith, for negotiated solutions in the field of cyber security and cyber crime in order to achieve a comprehensive and lasting settlement which shall be based on the norms and principles of international law;
24. Calls upon all parties to make full use of available mechanisms and formats for dialogue in a constructive spirit;
25. Supports all efforts to enhance information exchange on relevant experiences and best practices, involving also relevant actors from the private sector and civil society, and to establish public-private partnerships in this regard;
26. Encourages OSCE participating States to develop, adopt and implement national action plans on cyber security and cyber crime;
27. Recommends that the OSCE could function as a regional mechanism supporting, co-ordinating and reviewing the development and implementation of national activities in this field, building on and furthering previous activities related to various aspects of cyber security and cyber crime;
28. Urges OSCE participating States to adopt anticipatory measures in order to prevent security incidents, to increase the security awareness of information and communication technology users;
29. Stresses the need to analyse the sufficiency of existing measures and to supplement them according to the experience gained;
30. Welcomes the proposal to hold a conference or a round-table for OSCE parliamentarians, taking into account and building on previously held OSCE events related to various aspects of cyber security and cyber crime, to gain, through the help of experts, detailed information on all relevant aspects of the issue;
31. Asks the representatives of OSCE participating States to forward this resolution to the governments and parliaments of their countries.
THE SECURITY ENVIRONMENT IN GEORGIA
1. Noting the growing instability within the conflict zones in Georgia against the backdrop of the decision of the Government of the Russian Federation to strengthen official ties with secessionist regimes in the Abkhazia and South Ossetia regions,
2. Concerned by the unilateral decision of the Government of the Russian Federation to move additional military personnel into the Abkhazia region of Georgia under the aegis of the Commonwealth of Independent States Peacekeeping Force, of which Russia is the only troop-contributing country,
3. Acknowledging that the Russian Federation’s issuance of passports to residents of the Abkhazia and South Ossetia regions of Georgia, and the Government of the Russian Federation’s assertion of the right to defend these people by military force, constitute a challenge to the sovereignty and territorial integrity of Georgia,
4. Believing that the situation described above could exacerbate an already volatile situation in these regions and might lead, however unintentionally, to renewed armed conflict in those regions,
5. Concerned that renewed armed conflict in those regions would lead to a deterioration of the broader European security environment,
6. Noting that the Government of Georgia has offered extensive autonomy to Abkhazia and South Ossetia within the framework of a sovereign Georgian state,
The OSCE Parliamentary Assembly:
7. Urges the Government of the Russian Federation, in its contacts with the de facto authorities of the secessionist regions of Georgia, to refrain from maintaining ties with those regions in any manner that would constitute a challenge to the sovereignty of Georgia;
8. Urges the Russian Federation to abide by OSCE standards and generally accepted international norms with respect to the threat or use of force to resolve conflicts in relations with other participating States.
1. Reaffirming the OSCE’s comprehensive approach to security which includes the political-military, economic-environmental and human dimensions, and which has been documented in, inter alia, the 1975 Helsinki Final Act, the 1996 Lisbon Declaration on a Common and Comprehensive Security Model for Europe for the Twenty-First Century, the 1999 Istanbul Summit Charter for European Security, and the 2003 Maastricht Strategy to Address Threats to Security and Stability in the Twenty-First Century and the importance of such an approach to the challenges facing Afghanistan,
2. Reiterating in particular the concerns expressed by the participating States of the OSCE and the OSCE Parliamentary Assembly in their respective decisions and statements of principle about terrorism and drug trafficking as legitimate threats to a comprehensive security, including in the 1999 Charter for European Security, the 2001 Decision on Combating Terrorism, the 2001 Bucharest Plan of Action for Combating Terrorism, the 2002 OSCE Charter on Preventing and Combating Terrorism, the 2003 Maastricht Strategy to Address Threats to Security and Stability in the Twenty-First Century, as well as at the 2007 Ministerial Council in Madrid, in addition to the 2006 Brussels Declaration and the 2005 Washington, DC Declaration,
3. Recalling the July 2007 report of the Special Representative of the President of the OSCE PA on Anti-Terrorism Issues which suggests measures to prevent and combat terrorism, including strengthening the OSCE’s role,
4. Also recalling the 1999 Charter for European Security, which confirms the OSCE as an inclusive and comprehensive organization for consultation, decision-making and co-operation in its region,
5. Stressing the OSCE’s close relationship with the United Nations, which has led to co-operation on a wide range of common concerns including terrorism and trafficking and was documented in the Permanent Council’s 2006 Declaration on Co-operation with the United Nations,
6. Taking note of the OSCE’s commitment to intensify co-operation with Partners for Co-operation as pledged in the 2003 Maastricht Strategy to Address Threats to Security and Stability in the Twenty-First Century, as well as to explore the scope for a wider sharing of OSCE norms, principles and commitments,
7. Stressing the contribution that Afghanistan’s involvement as a Partner for Co-operation since 2003 makes to the security of the OSCE region,
8. Recalling as well the OSCE PA 2005 Washington, DC Declaration which refers to enhancing the partnership between Afghanistan and the OSCE in an effort to combat drug trafficking among other issues of concern, as well as the OSCE PA 2006 Brussels Declaration which resolves to promote Afghanistan’s participation in the OSCE,
9. Recalling the fundamental step taken by Afghanistan in fulfilling its commitment to democracy with the holding of presidential elections in 2004 and legislative elections in 2005,
10. Recalling the contribution made by an OSCE election support team in assisting Afghanistan in its preparation for the 2004 presidential and 2005 parliamentary elections,
11. Supporting the goals of the Afghanistan Compact, agreed at the London Conference on Afghanistan in 2006,
12. Noting the progress to date made by the Government of Afghanistan in meeting its commitments under the 2006 Afghanistan Compact which encompass elements of security, governance and economic and social development,
13. Aware of the deadlines of the Afghanistan Compact of 2011 and the Afghanistan Millennium Development Goals of 2020,
14. Hailing the work of the international community, including the numerous non-governmental organizations, in supporting the Government of Afghanistan in its development and reconstruction,
15. Condemning in the strongest terms all attacks, including suicide attacks and abductions, targeting civilians, Afghan and international forces; and the use of civilians as human shields by the Taliban and other extremists,
16. Concerned that such attacks undermine Afghan and international reconstruction and development efforts and present difficult challenges for the people of Afghanistan in their daily lives,
17. Concerned that opium poppy cultivation reached an all-time high in 2007 and that opium production increased by over one-third with the majority of it being converted into heroin or morphine inside Afghanistan, and concerned about the negative consequences of drug-trafficking on the social, economic and political development of Afghanistan,
18. Concerned that pledges made by international donors are not always fully delivered,
19. Concerned by the negative impact of cross-border activities involving Afghanistan’s neighbours including Pakistan and Iran on Afghanistan’s domestic stability and socio-economic progress,
20. Welcoming the renewed commitment made by the international community in adopting UN Security Council resolution 1806 of 20 March 2008, which instructs the UN Assistance Mission in Afghanistan to lead international civilian efforts to, inter alia, promote coherent support to the Government of Afghanistan and adherence to the Afghan Compact, strengthen co-operation with the International Security Assistance Force, facilitate the delivery of humanitarian assistance, provide increased political outreach through an expanded presence countrywide, and support efforts to improve governance and the rule of law, combat corruption, promote human rights, and assist in the electoral process, and which particularly reaffirms that “sustainable progress on security, governance and development, as well as the cross-cutting issue of counter-narcotics is mutually reinforcing”,
21. Also welcoming NATO’s Bucharest Summit Declaration, which states specifically that “Euro-Atlantic and wider international security is closely tied to Afghanistan’s future as a peaceful, democratic State, respectful of human rights and free from the threat of terrorism”,
22. Welcoming the 10 March 2008 appointment of Ambassador Kai Eide of Norway as Special Envoy of the UN Secretary-General and Head of the United Nations Assistance Mission in Afghanistan and noting his previous extensive experience with the OSCE,
23. Supporting United Nations Security Council resolution 1776 (2007) extending the mandate of the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) which comprises members and non-members of NATO who are also participating States of the OSCE,
24. Paying tribute to the sacrifices made by the Afghan people, ISAF contributing countries and the numerous non-governmental organizations, foreign and Afghan, in their efforts to restore and rebuild Afghanistan,
25. Noting that Afghanistan’s future lies in one of the OSCE’s principles, peaceful settlement of conflicts, and
26. Taking note that Afghan presidential elections are scheduled in Afghanistan in 2009 and parliamentary elections in 2010,
The OSCE Parliamentary Assembly:
27. Undertakes to continue its support for Afghanistan in its efforts to meet the commitments of the Afghanistan Compact, the Afghanistan National Development Strategy and the Afghanistan Millennium Development Goals in order to promote comprehensive security in the OSCE region;
28. Vigorously supports the Afghan Government’s fight against terrorism and drug trafficking and encourages continued co-operation with the OSCE participating States sharing borders with Afghanistan;
29. Welcomes the increasingly effective role of the parliament of Afghanistan in policymaking and oversight and urges that all international efforts be guided by the principle of Afghan leadership and ownership of reconstruction and reform efforts;
30. Calls on Afghanistan’s neighbours, including the OSCE participating States, as well as Pakistan and Iran, to co-operate with the Government of Afghanistan to help bring security and stability to the country;
31. Welcomes Afghanistan’s contributions to the OSCE dialogue, most recently by attending and participating in the Ministerial Council in Madrid on 30 November 2007;
32. Welcomes the decision on OSCE Engagement with Afghanistan (MC.DEC/4/07/Corr.1) adopted by the OSCE Ministerial Council in Madrid on 30 November 2007 in response to the request by Afghanistan for the OSCE to provide assistance in the fields of border security, police training, and combating drug trafficking;
33. Welcomes and supports the Government of Afghanistan’s pursuit of dialogue and political reconciliation with insurgents who renounce violence and agree to recognize the authority of the government and the constitution of Afghanistan and openness to a politically-negotiated solution to the conflict;
34. Calls on the governments of participating States to meet their full commitment with respect to international contributions, specifically the military mission and donor pledges in Afghanistan;
35. Encourages the individual OSCE participating States to pursue additional and supplementary bilateral and multilateral efforts to support Afghan programmes and stability;
36. Remains concerned that corruption and mismanagement continue to hinder reconstruction efforts and the fight against drug trafficking and consequently calls for greater emphasis from the Afghan Government and the international community on developing the Afghan judicial system and promoting good governance at all levels;
37. Remains concerned that women still face significant discrimination in Afghanistan and therefore urges the Government of Afghanistan, the United Nations Assistance Mission in Afghanistan, and the OSCE to redouble efforts to promote the role of women and equal opportunities for women in Afghan society;
38. Is concerned about rising food prices and the resulting potential for malnutrition and unrest, and urges the United Nations Assistance Mission in Afghanistan to support greater development of the legitimate Afghan agricultural sector and food production capability in order to ease food shortages and lessen dependence on imported flour;
39. Urges greater international effort to reduce significantly the high maternal mortality rate in Afghanistan by improving the essential care provided by skilled birth attendants, nurses, midwives or doctors during pregnancy and childbirth, including emergency services; by ensuring care for mothers and newborns; by reducing the distance and time a woman must travel to get skilled emergency medical care; and by measures to improve education and empowerment of women regarding maternal health;
40. Encourages the national parliaments of the OSCE:
a. to impress upon their governments the need to strengthen their contributions, military and humanitarian, to Afghanistan’s security and stability where needed,
b. to hold their governments and the international community to account regarding donor pledges,
c. to sustain the political will of their governments in Afghanistan’s reconstruction and development, and in political negotiations that may be undertaken and led by the Government of Afghanistan;
41. Offers its unconditional support to the United Nations Assistance Mission for Afghanistan and the NATO-led International Security Assistance Force;
42. Calls for strong co-operation and co-ordination between the OSCE and the United Nations Assistance Mission in Afghanistan as the OSCE moves forward with concrete projects implementing the Madrid Ministerial Decision on OSCE Engagement with Afghanistan;
43. Calls on the OSCE to explore, together with the United Nations Assistance Mission in Afghanistan, possibilities for the OSCE to assist with the preparation for presidential and parliamentary elections expected in 2009 and 2010, including having the OSCE and the OSCE Parliamentary Assembly provide election support to Afghanistan and, as appropriate, organize election monitoring missions for the 2009 presidential elections and 2010 parliamentary elections;
44. Recommends that the OSCE study, in the manner it deems appropriate, the terms and conditions for an intensification of co-operation with Afghanistan’s representation to the OSCE and the OSCE PA;
45. Recommends that the OSCE study, in the manner it deems appropriate, the current challenges that the Afghanistan situation poses for security in the OSCE area in order to support the country’s reconstruction, to identify the additional resources needed by ISAF and in what areas of Afghanistan support is needed, so that the military mission will be strengthened in its ability to accomplish its mandate, and thus promote greater security for the people of Afghanistan and the peoples of all the OSCE participating States.
A MEDITERRANEAN FREE TRADE AREA
1. Reiterating the fundamental importance of the economic and environmental aspects of the OSCE concept of security,
2. Recognizing that without economic growth there can be no peace or stability,
3. Recalling the importance that the OSCE Parliamentary Assembly accords to the development of international trade, as underlined by the Assembly’s fifth economic conference on the theme of Strengthening Stability and Co-operation through International Trade, which was held in Andorra, in May 2007,
4. Maintaining that creating a free trade area will, inter alia, contribute significantly to the efforts to achieve peace,
5. Recalling that the European Union itself was made possible by the establishment of free-trade areas, first the European Coal and Steel Community in 1951 and then the European Economic Community in 1957,
6. Recalling the Helsinki Final Act of 1975, in which OSCE participating States expressed their intention “to encourage with the non-participating Mediterranean States the development of mutually beneficial co-operation in the various fields of economic activity” and to “contribute to a diversified development of the economies of the non-participating Mediterranean countries”,
7. Recalling the Helsinki Final Act, in which OSCE participating States recognized “the importance of bilateral and multilateral intergovernmental and other agreements for the long-term development of trade” and undertook “to reduce or progressively eliminate all kinds of obstacles to the development of trade”,
8. Celebrating the decision made at the OSCE Summit in Budapest in 1994 to create a Contact Group with Mediterranean Partners for Cooperation,
9. Expressing support for the Barcelona Declaration of 1995 regarding the establishment of a free trade area between the members of the European Union and all Mediterranean states by 2010,
10. Saluting the American Middle East Free Trade Area Initiative (MEFTA) launched in 2003,
11. Concerned by the slow pace of economic development in the Middle East, especially in the agriculture sector and the knowledge-based economy, where two-thirds of the population is under the age of 35,
12. Considering the obstacles to economic growth posed by agricultural trade and tariff barriers, as discussed at the OSCE Parliamentary Assembly meeting in Rhodes in 2004,
13. Considering the lack of direct foreign investment in Middle Eastern Arab countries and the concentration of such investment in a small number of these countries,
14. Noting that despite the efforts made in the Middle East to stimulate free trade, economic growth in Mediterranean countries is markedly stronger in the Israel-Europe-North America axis than among countries in the region, and
15. Encouraged by the increased literacy rate and the increased participation of women in the domestic economies of countries in the Mediterranean basin,
The OSCE Parliamentary Assembly:
16. Recommends the creation of a Mediterranean Economic Commission whose objective would be to quickly reduce trade barriers and facilitate the transition to a knowledgebased economy in countries in the region;
17. Recommends the creation of a Mediterranean Agricultural Marketing Board whose objective would be to create jobs in the agriculture sector for young people in the region;
18. Invites OSCE participating countries and partner states for co-operation to intensify their efforts under the Barcelona Process and to more fully benefit from the MEFTA Initiative in order to expedite the establishment of a free-trade area among all Mediterranean countries.
EXPANDING TRADE BETWEEN NORTH AMERICA AND EUROPE
1. Reaffirming the importance of trade for economic growth, political stability and international peace,
2. Recalling the fundamental importance of the economic and environmental dimension in the OSCE’s comprehensive approach to security,
3. Considering that expanded free trade between North American and European markets will benefit all OSCE participating States politically as well as economically,
4. Recalling the commitments made by the participating States at the Maastricht Ministerial Council in December 2003 regarding the liberalization of trade and the elimination of barriers limiting market access,
5. Recalling the recommendations of the 2006 OSCE Best Practice Guide for a Positive Business and Investment Climate, published by the Office of the Co-ordinator of OSCE Economic and Environmental Activities, which advocate stronger international trade policies and conditions favourable to the circulation of international capital,
6. Concurring with the conclusions of the Co-ordinator of OSCE Economic and Environmental Activities that free trade agreements and the reduction of tariffs are vital to a strong trade policy,
7. Recalling the importance that the OSCE Parliamentary Assembly accords to the development of international trade as underlined by the Assembly’s Fifth Economic Conference on the theme of “Strengthening Stability and Co-operation through International Trade” held in Andorra in May 2007,
8. Recalling the deep historical and cultural ties between the peoples and states of North America and Europe which shaped their common values, on which the OSCE is based, and which are reinforced by the strength of their economic links,
9. Recognizing the considerable impact that the economies of North America and Europe have on international trade,
10. Considering the increasingly interdependent nature of the economic links between North America and Europe,
11. Noting the scope and depth of trade between North America and Europe which benefits public accounts and the private sector in addition to generating opportunities for employment,
12. Welcoming recently signed agreements that promote greater and freer trade between a limited number of markets in North America and Europe, such as the January 2008 Free Trade Agreement between Canada and the European Free Trade Association,
13. Acknowledging the appeal of the emerging markets in Asia and South America, whose growth will generate new levels of competition and economic efficiencies for trade between North America and Europe,
14. Concerned with the persistence of trade barriers in the economic relations between North America and Europe which limit opportunities for greater economic growth and human development,
15. Concerned with the state of the Doha Round of negotiations at the World Trade Organization which is affecting inter-regional trade negotiations such as the Canada-European Union Trade and Investment Enhancement Agreement suspended since 2006,
The OSCE Parliamentary Assembly:
16. Resolves that seminars and conferences to raise awareness of the opportunities and shared benefits of trade liberalization should be considered;
17. Calls on the parliaments of the OSCE participating States to vigorously support and accelerate all multilateral, inter-institutional and bilateral initiatives that promote the liberalization of trade between North America and Europe, including the harmonization of standards and the elimination of regulatory barriers;
18. Calls on the parliaments of the OSCE participating States to sustain the political will of their governments as members of existing economic agreements, including the North American Free Trade Agreement, the European Union, the European Free Trade Association and the Central European Free Trade Agreement, to develop transatlantic partnership agreements that expand and liberalise trade between and among them;
19. Recommends that current and future initiatives that target expanded trade between the economies of North America and Europe consider greater involvement where appropriate of regional and subregional governments and groupings;
20. Recommends that current and future initiatives that target expanded trade between the economies of North America and Europe reflect the principles and standards of the OSCE, particularly human rights, environmental protection, sustainable development and economic and social rights, including workers’ rights, as agreed to in the 1990 Document of the Bonn Conference on Economic Co-operation in Europe, the 1990 Document of the Copenhagen Meeting of the Conference on the Human Dimension of the CSCE and the 1990 Charter of Paris for a New Europe.
WATER MANAGEMENT IN THE OSCE AREA
1. Reiterating the fundamental importance of the environmental aspects of the OSCE concept of security,
2. Recognizing the link between natural resource problems and disputes or conflicts within and between states,
3. Noting the opportunities presented by resource management initiatives that address common environmental problems, including local ownership and sub-regional programmes and co-operation amongst governments, and which promote peacebuilding processes,
4. Recalling the OSCE’s role in encouraging sustainable environmental policies that promote peace and stability, specifically the 1975 Helsinki Final Act, the 1990 Concluding Document of the CSCE Conference on Economic Co-operation in Europe (Bonn Document), the 1999 Charter for European Security adopted at the Istanbul Summit, the 2003 OSCE Strategy Document for the Economic and Environmental Dimension (Maastricht Strategy), other OSCE relevant documents and decisions regarding environmental issues, and the outcome of all previous Economic and Environmental Fora, which have established a basis for the OSCE’s work in the area of environment and security,
5. Recognizing that water is of vital importance to human life and that it is an element of the human right to life and dignity,
6. Noting the severity of water management issues and the scarcity of water resources faced by many states in the OSCE region, affected in particular by unregulated social and economic activities, including urban development, industry, and agriculture,
7. Concerned by the impact of poor water management systems on human health, the environment, the sustainability of biodiversity and aquatic and land-based eco-systems, affecting political and socio-economic development,
8. Concerned by the more than 100 million people in the pan-European region who continue to lack access to safe drinking water and adequate sanitation,
9. Concerned by those areas and people in the North American region of the OSCE space without access to safe drinking water and sanitation,
10. Concerned by the potential for water management issues to escalate if options to address and reverse the problem are not duly considered and implemented,
11. Recognizing the importance of good environmental governance and responsible water management for the governments of participating States,
12. Applauding the work of the Preparatory Seminar for the Tenth OSCE Economic Forum which took place in 2001 in Belgrade and which focused on water resource management and the promotion of regional environmental co-operation in South-Eastern Europe,
13. Applauding the work of the 15th OSCE Economic and Environmental Forum and its preparatory meetings, “Key challenges to ensure environmental security and sustainable development in the OSCE area: Water Management,” held in Zaragoza, Spain,
14. Applauding the OSCE’s Madrid Declaration on Environment and Security adopted at the 2007 Ministerial Council which draws attention to water management as an environmental risk which may have a substantial impact on security in the OSCE region and which might be more effectively addressed within the framework of multilateral co-operation,
15. Expressing support for the efforts made to date by several participating States of the OSCE to deal with the problem, including the workshop on water management organized by the OSCE Centre in Almaty in May 2007 for experts from Central Asia and the Caucasus,
The OSCE Parliamentary Assembly:
16. Calls on the OSCE participating States to undertake sound water management to support sustainable environmental policies;
17. Recommends that the OSCE participating States pursue and apply the measures necessary to implement the 2007 Madrid Declaration on Environment and Security;
18. Recommends that such water management and oversight activities include national, regional and local co-operative initiatives that share best practices and provide support and assistance amongst each other;
19. Recommends that the OSCE participating States adopt the multiple barrier approach to drinking water protection, with particular attention to water tables, in their national, regional and local regulations to ensure that people living throughout the OSCE space have access to safe drinking water;
20. Recommends that the OSCE participating States consider developing more effective national, sub-national and local results-based, action-oriented and differentiated approaches to sound water management policies;
21. Encourages the OSCE participating States to continue their work with other regional and international institutions and organizations with respect to water management solutions, providing for the establishment of supranational arbitral commissions with decision-making powers delegated by the States.
ENCOURAGING TRANSPARENCY IN
THE EXTRACTIVE INDUSTRIES
1. Recognizing that a lack of transparency in the oil, gas, and mining industries, especially in countries that depend heavily on income from these sectors, often goes hand-in-hand with government corruption,
2. Recognizing that two thirds of the world's poorest people live in resource rich countries,
3. Recognizing that corruption often siphons off funds into the hands of the few, leaving the many mired in poverty,
4. Recognizing that revenue transparency is key to ensuring accountability. If citizens and civil society know what their governments receive for the right to extract natural resources, they have the means to hold public officials accountable,
5. Praising the progress made toward greater transparency in the extractive industries (oil, gas and mining) through the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative,
The OSCE Parliamentary Assembly:
6. Encourages governments and companies involved in the extractive industries to proactively report in all areas relevant to revenue transparency on a country-by-country basis;
7. Encourages governments and appropriate regulatory agencies to introduce mandatory revenue transparency reporting for the operations of companies at home and abroad;
8. Encourages governments from oil and gas producing countries to introduce regulations that require all companies operating in their territories to make public information relevant to revenue transparency.
ILLICIT AIR TRANSPORT OF SMALL ARMS AND
LIGHT WEAPONS AND THEIR AMMUNITION
1. Recalling the OSCE PA 2005 resolution on Small Arms and Light Weapons and its 2006 and 2007 resolutions on the illicit air transportation of Small Arms and Light Weapons (SALW),
2. Recalling the conclusions of the 21 March 2007 meeting of the Forum for Security Co-operation on Illicit Trafficking by Air of Small Arms and Light Weapons,
3. Welcoming the progress reached within the OSCE Forum for Security Co-operation (FSC), in particular the growing and possibly imminent consensus on the text of a Best Practice Guide on the illicit air transportation of SALW as well as a Questionnaire on national practices in this field,
4. Welcoming the OSCE participation in and contribution to the third United Nations Biannual Meeting of States on the UN Programme of Action on SALW (BMS III) in New York in July 2008,
5. Welcoming the proposals and the initiatives to be discussed in the Forum for Security Co-operation on further norm-setting on SALW in general and the implementation of the OSCE Principles on the Control of Brokering in particular,
6. Regretting that since our last resolution we have had to witness yet again the devastating effects on human security of the uncontrolled and illegal spread of SALW and their ammunition in many parts of the world,
7. Underscoring that very often the SALW and the ammunition used in armed conflicts outside the OSCE area originate from within the OSCE area,
8. Underscoring yet again our joint responsibility in tackling illicit trafficking in small arms and light weapons,
The OSCE Parliamentary Assembly:
9. Calls upon the OSCE participating States voluntarily to report to the FSC on implementation of the conclusions of the 21 March 2007 meeting and, in particular to:
criminalize the violation of United Nations Security Council arms embargoes;
engage in a dialogue with the air cargo transportation sector with a view to closing the loopholes on illegal transportation of small arms and light weapons;
promote the wider introduction and use of air traffic control systems;
promote the use of air traffic control data for purposes of post-fact analysis and of prevention or control of flights suspected of engaging in trafficking small arms and light weapons;
10. Calls upon the OSCE participating States to ensure proper management of SALW stocks and ammunition as well as the destruction of surpluses and encourages participating States and OSCE Partners for Co-operation to provide assistance for this purpose;
11. Calls upon OSCE participating States to support and implement national, regional and international efforts and regulations on arms trade, export licensing and brokering;
12. Calls upon all OSCE participating States and all OSCE Partners for Co-operation to spare no efforts in ensuring a successful outcome of the July 2008 UN BMS III, aiming at a better and broader implementation of the UN Programme of Action on SALW;
13. Calls upon the OSCE participating States to reach consensus on and implement the OSCE Best Practice Guide on the illicit air transportation of SALW and their ammunition and to provide answers to the questionnaire by the set date of June 2009;
14. Calls upon the OSCE participating States and the OSCE Partners for Co-operation to discuss the issue of illicit trafficking of small arms and light weapons, in the appropriate regional fora in Africa and Asia of which they are also members;
15. Encourages OSCE participating States to promote and engage in international co-operation, particularly in and with Africa, to create better conditions to combat illicit trafficking of small arms and light weapons.
1. Referring to the OSCE Ministerial Declaration on the 20th Anniversary of the Disaster at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (MC.DOC/3/05Corr.1 as of 6 December 2005), as well as the Madrid Declaration on Environment and Security (MC.DOC/4/07 as of 30 November 2007),
2. Conscious of the long-term nature of the consequences of the disaster at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant, which was a major technological catastrophe in terms of its scope and complexity and created humanitarian, environmental, social, economic and health consequences and problems of common concern, requiring for their solution wide and active international co-operation and co-ordination of efforts in this field at the international and national levels,
3. Expressing profound concern at the ongoing effects of the consequences of the accident on the lives and health of people, in particular children, in the affected areas of Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine, as well as in other affected countries,
4. Acknowledging the importance of the national efforts being undertaken by the Governments of Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine to mitigate and minimize the consequences of the Chernobyl disaster,
5. Stressing the exceptional Chernobyl-related needs, in particular in the areas of health, environment and research, in the context of the transition from the emergency to the recovery phase of mitigation of the consequences of the Chernobyl disaster,
6. Noting that the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant continues to pose a potential threat in the centre of Europe,
7. Commending the international community for the efforts to raise funds and attract scientific and technical potential to increase safety of the “Shelter”,
8. Noting the need to continue the efforts of the OSCE participating States to mobilize resources for providing assistance to activities aimed at rehabilitation of the Chernobyl-affected areas, community-based development projects, promotion of investment, creation of new jobs and small and medium businesses, and information activities,
9. Acknowledging that the OSCE in the framework of its mandate can constructively contribute to the international co-operation to alleviate the consequences of the Chernobyl accident, including through participation in, and support of, relevant projects, and to provide appropriate assistance and expertise in consultation with the States concerned,
The OSCE Parliamentary Assembly:
10. Welcomes the contribution made by States and by multilateral intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations to the development of co-operation to mitigate and minimize the consequences of the Chernobyl disaster, as well as bilateral activities in working out concrete projects and mobilizing resources, and underlining the need to continue activities in this direction;
11. Highly appreciates the efforts of the OSCE in co-operation with relevant international organizations to support regional and transboundary co-operation on rehabilitation of the land contaminated as a result of the Chernobyl disaster, both to prevent the radionuclide migration and to promote the natural recovery process;
12. Acknowledges the difficulties faced by the most affected countries in minimizing the consequences of the Chernobyl disaster;
13. Takes note with satisfaction of the progress made by the governments of the affected countries in implementing national strategies to mitigate the consequences of the Chernobyl disaster, and calls upon the OSCE participating States, multilateral and bilateral donors to continue to align their assistance with the priorities of the national strategies of the affected States, and stresses the importance of working together on their implementation;
14. Welcomes the initiative of the United Nations General Assembly to proclaim the third decade after the Chernobyl disaster (2006-2016) as the Decade of Recovery and Sustainable Development of the Affected Regions, to be focused on achieving the goal of a return to normal life for the affected communities as far as is possible within this time-frame;
15. Requests the OSCE Secretary General to continue co-ordination, within the existing resources, of the efforts of the OSCE in implementing concrete Chernobyl- and Decade-related programmes and projects;
16. Requests the Co-ordinator of the OSCE Economic and Environmental Activities, in co-operation with the governments of the affected countries, to continue the activities on minimization of health, environmental, social and economic consequences of the Chernobyl catastrophe and improvement of awareness-raising among the population;
17. Recommends that the President of the Assembly nominates a Special Representative on Chernobyl to assist politically the promotion of issues specified in the present Resolution.
URGING ADOPTION OF THE PARIS CLUB COMMITMENT
REGARDING VULTURE FUNDS
1. Recognizing again that as increasing numbers of specialized asset management companies, commonly known as “vulture funds”, buy the distressed commercial debt of heavily indebted poor countries (HIPC) and then engage in abusive litigation against those countries, efforts to alleviate poverty through multilateral debt relief are threatened and undermined,
2. Reaffirming the sentiments expressed in the Kyiv Declaration that OSCE participating States provide greater legal and technical assistance to HIPCs facing possible litigation, and develop a code of conduct on responsible lending for commercial creditors that discourages or prohibits “vulture fund” profiteering and provides greater legal protection to debtor countries,
3. Reiterating its firm support for ensuring that debt cancellation continues to provide impoverished countries with the opportunity to start afresh and to devote resources saved as a result of debt relief to essential health, education, and other spending that promotes development and alleviates poverty,
4. Recognizing that attempts to curtail this practice will require concerted action from individual countries, regional government entities like the EU, and institutions such as the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank to ensure that the benefits of debt cancellation go to the people who need them,
5. Applauding and expressing support for the May 2007 statement by the Paris Club committing not to sell their claims on HIPC countries to creditors who do not intend to provide debt relief under the HIPC initiative,
6. Acknowledging that the stance by the Paris Club creditors is a model that should be adopted by other countries to prevent developing countries that receive debt relief from being subjected to litigation,
The OSCE Parliamentary Assembly:
7. Welcomes the statement by the Paris Club countries and their commitment to intensify work to identify concrete measures to tackle this problem;
8. Encourages all OSCE participating States, especially those that are not Paris Club members, to formally adopt and implement policies equivalent to the Paris Club commitment, and formally commit not to sell on their claims on HIPC creditors to creditors who do not intend to provide debt relief, further protecting impoverished countries from “vulture funds”;
9. Encourages all OSCE participating States to consider and take other options, including legislation, to reduce the impact of Vulture Funds on bilateral and multilateral debt relief initiatives to developing countries;
10. Commits itself to actively engage and co-operate with the IMF, World Bank and Paris Club in order to develop and strengthen the necessary Codes of Conduct that could prevent Vulture Funds from buying debt from indebted countries;
11. Continues to recognize the need to provide financial and technical assistance to HIPCs in defending themselves should they become the target of such lawsuits.
COMBATING THE SEXUAL EXPLOITATION OF CHILDREN
1. Acknowledging that according to some estimates as many as 1.2 million children are trafficked each year,
2. Recognizing that cyber space is home to more than one million images of tens of thousands of children being subjected to sexual abuse and exploitation, that the victims portrayed in images of child pornography are getting younger and younger and the images are becoming more graphic and more violent, and that an estimated 200 new images of child pornography are posted daily,
3. Deeply concerned by the impact of all forms of child sexual exploitation on the wellbeing of children,
4. Recalling the 2006 Brussels Resolution of the OSCE PA on Combating Trafficking and the Exploitation of Children in Pornography and Decision No. 9/07 of the Ministerial Council on Combating Sexual Exploitation of Children on the Internet,
5. Deploring child sexual exploitation and abuse in any form,
6. Deeply concerned over the cases that have been brought to light of sexual abuse and/or maltreatment of children by members of peacekeeping forces, private security forces and humanitarian organizations in a number of conflict areas, and stressing the urgent need for the international community to adopt measures of “zero tolerance” against this crime,
7. Noting that research and law enforcement experience have documented a correlation between possession of child pornography and committing sexual abuse upon a child, and that every image of child pornography that is acquired encourages the further growth of this illicit industry,
8. Commending POLIS for creating an expert forum to facilitate access by participating States’ law enforcement agencies to best practices and available investigative techniques or software, access to legislative drafting assistance and/or legislative models, and provide awareness-raising information and web links for the public,
9. Noting with deepest regret that no country is immune from child sexual exploitation and that the lives of children are forever altered as a result of exploitation and abuse,
The OSCE Parliamentary Assembly:
10. Condemns child sexual exploitation in all its forms;
11. Reiterates the call for participating States to ensure that the production, distribution, dissemination, importation, exportation, offering, selling, or possessing of child pornography (regardless of intent to distribute), or any attempt to commit any of these acts, or any complicity or participation in any of these acts, are fully covered under national criminal or penal law, whether such offences are committed domestically or transnationally or on an individual or organized basis, and are punishable by appropriate penalties that take into account their grave nature;
12. Calls on participating States to ratify the Council of Europe Convention on the Protection of Children against Sexual Exploitation and Sexual Abuse;
13. Encourages participating States to establish national operational centres, or other structures as appropriate, to increase co-ordination and to involve to the fullest extent possible public-private partnerships to address issues related to child sexual exploitation more effectively;
14. Calls on participating States to collect and store information, in accordance with national provisions on the protection of personal data, on persons convicted of child sexual exploitation or abuse in order to facilitate the apprehension of perpetrators and monitoring of their probation, and to develop, where appropriate, instruments to enable the international exchange of information pertaining to sex offenders’ convictions and disqualifications among law enforcement agencies;
15. Urges participating States also to provide notice to appropriate officials of another country or countries when a known sex offender intends to travel to that country or countries and, for that purpose, to ensure that their domestic legislation requires that registered child sex offenders notify the appropriate officials before departure to a foreign country and penalizes those failing to comply;
16. Requests the OSCE Secretariat to set up within the POLIS website of its Strategic Police Matters Unit a multilingual section devoted to combating child sexual exploitation on the Internet;
17. Urges the OSCE Secretariat to continue organizing OSCE online workshops through the POLIS website on child sexual exploitation on the Internet;
18. Encourages participating States, in accordance with national legislation concerning the protection of personal data, to work not only on a national basis but also on an international basis with Internet service providers, credit card companies, banks, and other relevant corporations to prevent the use of the Internet for commercial child sexual exploitation and to impede payment methods to make the crime less profitable and to address demand for child pornography on the Internet.
RESOLUTION ON VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN
1. Recognizing that equal opportunities for women and men and the protection of their human rights are essential to peace, sustainable democracy, economic development and therefore to security and stability in the OSCE region,
2. Noting that, in its Declaration on the Elimination of Violence against Women (1993), the United Nations General Assembly stated that it was convinced of the need for a commitment by States in respect of their responsibilities and a commitment of the international community at large to the elimination of violence against women,
3. Recalling the 2004 OSCE Action Plan for Gender Issues and the 2005 Ministerial Council Decision 15/05 on Preventing and Combating Violence Against Women which called on participating States to fight violence against women and increase protection of victims,
4. Further recalling the Beijing Platform for Action and the United Nations Security Council resolution 1325 (2000), which calls for full and equal participation of women in decision making with regard to conflict prevention as well as in post-conflict reconstruction, and stressing the importance of women’s full and equal participation and involvement in all efforts for the maintenance and promotion of peace and security,
5. Alarmed by the increase in the number of women subjected to violence in OSCE participating States and the fact that globally, one woman in five is a victim of violence, and raising concern that the issue of domestic violence remains largely invisible in spite of this,
The OSCE Parliamentary Assembly:
6. Condemns violence against women as a general violation of women’s rights as human beings – the right to life, dignity, safety, and physical and psychological well-being;
7. Realizes that all kinds of violence, including domestic violence against women are linked with the overall disrespect for women’s role in society, and regrets that gender issues are still not visible on the political agenda of the OSCE;
8. Urges the OSCE Secretary General, Heads of Institutions and Heads of Missions as day-to-day managers within the Organization to increase efforts in promoting a more gender equal working environment within the OSCE in order to set an example for all levels of society in participating States;
9. Repeats its call for participating States to second more women to management level positions and to nominate more female candidates to leadership positions within the OSCE, and strongly urges national Parliaments to ensure gender-balance in the composition of the Delegations to the OSCE PA;
10. Encourages participating States to recruit more female police officers, to set up centres for victims of gender violence, trafficking in human beings and victims of rape, and to ensure flexibility as regards access to justice and calls on the OSCE to provide support and assistance to States in this regard;
11. Urges national Parliaments to ensure adequate legislation to protect women who are victims of domestic violence, including through emancipating victims from vulnerable situations, instituting appropriate restraints on movements by perpetrators, enforcing penalties and sentences, and providing legal assistance, loans and access to property to victims of domestic violence;
12. Calls on the national parliaments in the OSCE region to ensure that legislation outlaws all forms of violence against women, including rape, prostitution and trafficking, and institutes appropriate penalties and sentences;
13. Urges increased international co-operation between state institutions and NGOs in order to improve protection for the female victims of violence or trafficking, including awareness-raising and training for those in primary contact with potential victims;
14. Notes that women’s economic dependency on men makes women easy targets for oppression and abuse, as well as potential victims of prostitution and human trafficking, and affirms the importance of reducing poverty and of actively promoting possibilities for women in the labour market;
15. Repeats its call on parliaments to ratify, if they have not yet done so, and implement the United Nations Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women and the Convention on the Rights of the Child and their protocols.
RECOGNIZING THE ECONOMIC, CULTURAL, POLITICAL
AND SOCIAL CONTRIBUTIONS OF MIGRANTS
1. Reaffirming the cultural diversity of OSCE participating States and the centuries of migration which have resulted in the rich culture now expressed and celebrated in those States,
2. Reaffirming the commitments of OSCE participating States to co-operate on migration mechanisms consistent with universal human rights and respectful of both the historical contribution of migrant communities and the needs of the global economy,
3. Noting the 2008 Supplementary Human Dimension Implementation Meeting this year entitled, The Role of National Institutions against Discrimination in Combating Racism and Xenophobia with Special Focus on Persons belonging to National Minorities and Migrants, which will assist in recognizing the positive contributions of migrants in OSCE states,
4. Recalling the OSCE Ministerial Council in Sofia of December 2004, at which participating States committed themselves to “take steps, in conformity with their domestic law and international obligations, against discrimination, intolerance and xenophobia against migrants and migrant workers”, and “consider undertaking activities to raise public awareness of the enriching contribution of migrants and migrant workers into society”,
5. Recognizing the diversity of migrant communities throughout participating States which include students, scholars, and workers of all skill levels, who serve important roles in society, yet due to policies in both countries of origin and destination have not developed their full potential to contribute to their host and home countries,
6. Acknowledging that migrants perform a vital role in bolstering the labour market and contributing significantly to the economies of OSCE participating States,
7. Considering that remittances from migrants significantly exceed international development aid and contribute to the economic empowerment of many countries of origin and recognizing that migrant women remit more of their income for family needs such as food, clothing, housing, education, and health,
8. Acknowledging the contributions that migrants have made for several decades to the economic development of the countries of destination and are currently making to daily life in the receiving societies, in political, economic, commercial, cultural, scientific and sporting terms, and also to the international relations and the promotion of the countries of destination,
The OSCE Parliamentary Assembly:
9. Encourages parliamentarians to engage in actions to commemorate the positive economic, cultural, and social contributions to both countries of origin and destination by migrant communities, such as introducing legislation, speaking out against antimigrant sentiments in their parliaments, working with migrant communities to develop policies which empower all and protect vulnerable migrants such as women, children, and racial and ethnic minorities, and to avoid making statements and actions that may excite xenophobic and discriminatory tendencies in their societies;
10. Encourages participating States to promote policies which harness the potential of migrant communities by improving their economic, educational, civic, and social integration, as well as improving their workforce development skills and providing them with citizenship classes, and recognizing the contributions migrants provide to host countries’ economies;
11. Urges participating States to improve co-operation with appropriate regulatory agencies and international financial institutions towards optimizing remittance mechanisms and small business micro-loan programmes, particularly for women supporting the development of local financial institutions, which improve the economic contributions of remittances to the positive development of countries of origin.
COMBATING ANTI-SEMITISM, ESPECIALLY ITS
MANIFESTATIONS IN THE MEDIA AND IN ACADEMIA
1. Recalling the Parliamentary Assembly’s leadership in increasing the focus and attention of the participating States since the 2002 Annual Session in Berlin on issues related to manifestations of anti-Semitism,
2. Reaffirming especially the 2002 Porto Ministerial Decision condemning “anti-Semitic incidents in the OSCE area, recognizing the role that the existence of anti-Semitism has played throughout history as a major threat to freedom”,
3. Referring to the commitments made by the participating States in the previous OSCE conferences in Vienna (2003), Berlin (2004), Brussels (2004) and Cordoba (2005) regarding legal, political and educational efforts to fight anti-Semitism,
4. Welcoming all efforts of the parliaments of the OSCE participating States on combating anti-Semitism, especially the All-Party Parliamentary Inquiry on anti-Semitism in the United Kingdom,
5. Noting with satisfaction all initiatives of the civil society organizations which are active in the field of combating anti-Semitism,
6. Acknowledging that incidents of anti-Semitism occur throughout the OSCE region and are not unique to any one country, which necessitates unwavering steadfastness by all participating States to erase this black mark on human history,
The OSCE Parliamentary Assembly:
7. Appreciates the ongoing work undertaken by the OSCE and ODIHR through its Programme on Tolerance and Non-discrimination and supports the continued organisation of expert meetings on anti-Semitism and other forms of intolerance aimed at enhancing the implementation of relevant OSCE commitments;
8. Appreciates the initiative by Mr John Mann MP (United Kingdom) to create a world-wide Inter-Parliamentary Coalition for Combating Anti-Semitism and encourages the parliaments of the OSCE participating States to support this initiative;
9. Urges participating States to present written reports on their activities to combat anti-Semitism and other forms of discrimination at the 2009 Annual Session;
10. Reminds participating States to improve methods of monitoring and to report anti-Semitic incidents and other hate crimes to the Office for Democratic Institutions and Human Rights (ODIHR) in a timely manner;
11. Recognizes the importance of the ODIHR tools in improving the effectiveness of States’ response to anti-Semitism, such as teaching materials on anti-Semitism, the OSCE/ODIHR Law Enforcement Officers Programme (LEOP), which helps police forces within participating States better to identify and combat incitement to anti-Semitism and other hate crimes, and civil society capacity-building to combat anti-Semitism and hate crimes, including through the development of networks and coalitions with Muslim, Roma, African descendent and other communities combating intolerance; and recommends that other States make use of these tools;
12. Expresses appreciation of the commitment by 10 countries – Croatia, Denmark, Germany, Lithuania, the Netherlands, Poland, the Russian Federation, Slovakia, Spain and Ukraine – in co-developing with ODIHR and the Anne Frank House teaching materials on the history of Jews and anti-Semitism in Europe, and encourages all other OSCE participating States to adopt these teaching materials in their respective national languages and put them into practice;
13. Encourages participating States to adopt the guide for educators entitled Addressing Anti-Semitism – WHY and HOW, developed by ODIHR in co-operation with Yad Vashem, in their respective national languages and put them into practice;
14. Urges governments to create and employ curricula that go beyond Holocaust education in dealing with Jewish life, history and culture;
15. Condemns continued incidents of anti-Semitic stereotypes appearing in the media, including news reports, news commentaries, as well as published commentaries by readers;
16. Condemns the use of double standards in media coverage of Israel and its role in the Middle East conflict;
17. Calls upon the media to have discussions on the impact of language and imagery on Judaism, anti-Zionism and Israel and its consequences on the interaction between communities in the OSCE participating States;
18. Deplores the continued dissemination of anti-Semitic content via the Internet, including through websites, blogs and email;
19. Urges participating States to increase their efforts to counter the spread of anti-Semitic content, including its dissemination through the Internet, within the framework of their respective national legislation;
20. Urges editors to refrain from publishing anti-Semitic material and to develop a self-regulated code of ethics for dealing with anti-Semitism in media;
21. Calls upon participating States to prevent the distribution of television programmes and other media which promote anti-Semitic views and incite anti-Semitic crimes, including, but not limited to, satellite broadcasting;
22. Reminds participating States of measures to combat the dissemination of racist and anti-Semitic material via the Internet suggested at the 2004 OSCE Meeting on the Relationship between Racist, Xenophobic and Anti-Semitic Propaganda on the Internet and Hate Crimes, that include calls to:
pursue complementary parallel strategies,
train investigators and prosecutors on how to address bias-motivated crimes on the Internet,
support the establishment of programmes to educate children about bias-motivated expression they may encounter on the Internet,
promote industry codes of conduct,
gather data on the full extent of the distribution of anti-Semitic hate messages on the Internet;
23. Deplores the continued intellectualization of anti-Semitism in academic spheres, particularly through publications and public events at universities;
24. Suggests the preparation of standards and guidelines on academic responsibility to ensure the protection of Jewish and other minority students from harassment, discrimination and abuse in the academic environment;
25. Urges all participants of the upcoming Durban Review Conference in Geneva to make sure that pressing issues of racism around the world will be properly assessed and that the conference will not be misused as a platform for promoting anti-Semitism;
26. Suggests that the delegations of the OSCE participating States hold a meeting on the eve of the Durban Review Conference to discuss and evaluate the Durban Review process.
THE HOLODOMOR OF 1932-1933 IN UKRAINE
1. Reiterating the crucial role of the OSCE in the promotion of human rights and values,
2. Recalling that parliamentary institutions play a decisive role in defining humanitarian policies and legislation and represent the will of the people of relevant countries,
3. Emphasizing that raising public awareness of humanitarian tragedies of our history is an important tool for restoring the dignity of victims through acknowledgment of their suffering and preventing similar catastrophes in the future,
4. Reminding the OSCE participating States of their commitment to “clearly and unequivocally condemn totalitarianism” (1990 Copenhagen Document),
5. Recalling that the rule of the totalitarian Stalinist regime in the former USSR had led to tremendous human rights violations depriving millions of people of their right to live,
6. Recalling also that crimes of the Stalinist regime have already been revealed and condemned and some still require both national and international recognition and unequivocal condemnation,
The OSCE Parliamentary Assembly:
7. Pays tribute to the innocent lives of millions of Ukrainians who perished during the Holodomor of 1932 and 1933 as a result of the mass starvation brought about by the cruel deliberate actions and policies of the totalitarian Stalinist regime;
8. Welcomes the recognition of the Holodomor in the United Nations, by the United Nations Educational and Scientific Organization and by the national parliaments of a number of the OSCE participating States;
9. Endorses the Joint Statement of 31 OSCE participating States on the 75th anniversary of the Holodomor of 1932 and 1933 in Ukraine, delivered at the 15th Meeting of the OSCE Ministerial Council;
10. Supports the initiative of Ukraine to reveal the full truth of this tragedy of the Ukrainian people, in particular through raising public awareness of the Holodomor at international and national levels, organizing the commemoration of the Holodomor as well as academic, expert and civil events aimed at discussing this issue;
11. Invites the parliamentarians of the OSCE participating States to participate in the events commemorating the 75th anniversary of the Holodomor of 1932-1933 in Ukraine;
12. Strongly encourages all parliaments to adopt acts regarding recognition of the Holodomor.
STRENGTHENING EFFORTS TO COMBAT ALL FORMS OF
TRAFFICKING IN HUMAN BEINGS AND ADDRESSING THE
SPECIAL NEEDS OF CHILD VICTIMS
1. Commending the increasing number of OSCE participating States that have adopted comprehensive laws, policies, and practices to combat all forms of trafficking in persons,
2. Recalling the principles of the OSCE PA Brussels Declaration (2006), the OSCE PA Kyiv Declaration (2007), as well as efforts by participating States to implement the OSCE Action Plan to Combat Trafficking in Human Beings (2003) and all OSCE commitments related to combating trafficking,
3. Noting the 8th Alliance Against Trafficking in Persons Conference (May 2008) to specifically address “Child Trafficking: Responses and Challenges at the Local Level”,
4. Noting the recent Final Report on the Evaluation of the First Offender Prostitution Program (March 2008) submitted to the United States Department of Justice, which evaluates the effectiveness of programmes that educate male clients of prostitution about the legal, health and other risks and effects of prostitution and concludes that such programmes significantly reduce recidivism and therefore would also reduce demand for sex trafficking,
5. Supporting with absolute determination efforts to further strengthen national and multinational efforts to combat all forms of trafficking in human beings throughout the OSCE region and beyond,
6. Concerned that official corruption continues to hamper efforts to combat human trafficking, including preventing trafficking, protecting victims, and prosecuting traffickers,
7. Concerned that military and civilian personnel serving on international peacekeeping forces or other international missions, including contractors, as well as field presences of international organizations, including the OSCE, could be a contributing factor to the demand side of the trafficking cycle and that reports of misconduct by military and civilian personnel serving on such missions have a detrimental effect on the fulfilment of mission mandates;
The OSCE Parliamentary Assembly:
8. Urges those participating States that have not already done so to adopt and implement comprehensive anti-trafficking laws, policies and practices, addressing human trafficking in all its forms and enabling effective prosecution of perpetrators, prevention, and protection of victims;
9. Encourages the OSCE and all participating States to continue to develop robust and comprehensive prevention strategies and programmes addressing human trafficking in all its forms;
10. Calls on all participating States to increase resources to governmental agencies, including law enforcement, and relevant non-governmental organizations, to enhance the capacity and effectiveness of measures aimed at prosecution of perpetrators, prevention of trafficking and protection of trafficking victims;
11. Appeals to participating States to ensure that perpetrators are prosecuted effectively and punishments are imposed that are commensurate with the crime;
12. Further encourages participating States to vigorously investigate, prosecute, and sentence public officials who participate in or facilitate human trafficking;
13. Calls on participating States to improve, where necessary, measures to prevent military and civilian personnel deployed abroad on peacekeeping forces or other international missions from engaging in trafficking in persons or exploiting victims of trafficking, and to ensure that their national laws, regulations, and other relevant documents can be enforced with respect to their nationals who are serving on peacekeeping forces or other international missions;
14. Urges participating States to establish or strengthen programmes to promote international co-operation in protecting trafficking victims and their families from retribution for aiding in prosecution processes in order to increase prosecutions;
15. Urges participating States to ensure effective identification mechanisms for trafficking victims, particularly to ensure victims are not prosecuted for prostitution and immigration violations;
16. Further urges participating States to interact with non-governmental organizations and other international mechanisms for, when appropriate, the safe return of trafficking victims to their home countries;
17. Strongly urges participating States to develop strategies for addressing the vulnerabilities of potential trafficking victims and for successfully re-integrating rescued trafficking victims, particularly by establishing and by facilitating the efforts of NGOs to establish micro-enterprise and microfinance activities for victims of human trafficking and at-risk women entrepreneurs in high trafficking areas;
18. Calls on all participating States to strengthen national monitoring mechanisms, national referral mechanisms, co-ordinating structures, data collection and research focused on trafficking in human beings;
19. Encourages media outlets in source, transit and destination countries to play a more vigorous role in helping to educate the public about the many facets of human trafficking, including factors contributing to demand for all forms of trafficking, warning signs for potential victims and parents of potential victims of trafficking, and actions that individuals might take if they encounter a possible victim of trafficking;
20. Calls on participating States to develop and implement programmes to educate male clients of prostitutes about the legal, health and other risks and effects of prostitution, with the goal of significantly reducing recidivism rates and demand for sex trafficking;
21. Calls on participating States to develop policies and support initiatives to more effectively reduce the demand that drives all forms of trafficking in persons, including through awareness raising campaigns and legislative or other measures;
22. Urges participating States, where necessary, to clarify definitions in national legislation related to forced labour, and to educate the appropriate officials about the distinction between trafficking in persons and other situations not to be confused with this, such as illegal immigration, and human smuggling;
23. Strongly urges the OSCE and the participating States to take immediate steps to promote the aggressive prosecution of those responsible for the trafficking of infants, children and youths, prevention of such crimes against children and protection of victims, including through implementation of the recommendations contained in the Addendum to the OSCE Action Plan to Combat Trafficking in Human Beings: Addressing the Special Needs of Child Victims of Trafficking for Protection and Assistance, inter alia;
a. Establishing and/or strengthening effective policies and programmes to prevent trafficking in children;
b. developing co-ordinating and referral mechanisms to specifically address protection and assistance measures which focus on the special needs of child victims of trafficking;
c. facilitating special training for law enforcement and direct service personnel on proper and effective methods to identify child victims of trafficking; and
d. forming partnerships with civil society to develop a comprehensive approach to protect and assist child victims of trafficking;
24. Urges OSCE participating States to co-operate in ensuring, when appropriate, the safe return of child victims of trafficking, including through the incorporation of risk assessments and reintegration programmes with their anti-trafficking in persons policies;
25. Urges the participating States to establish educational outreach programmes aimed at particularly vulnerable populations of children and youths, including those residing in state institutions;
26. Expresses appreciation for the ongoing work of the Office of the Special Representative and Co-ordinator for Combating Trafficking in Human Beings as well as anti-trafficking efforts undertaken by OSCE Missions and Field Presences; and
27. Calls on the OSCE to continue co-operation with other international organizations on concrete and practical programmes to combat trafficking in persons.
1. Underlining the importance of election observation and noting the contribution that effective observation makes to improving electoral practices,
2. Reiterating the commitment of all OSCE participating States to invite OSCE observers,
3. Stressing that the political expertise of parliamentarians lends unmatched credibility to OSCE election observation,
The OSCE Parliamentary Assembly:
4. Urges the Parliamentary Assembly to continue providing political leadership to OSCE election observation missions as called for in the 1997 Co-operation Agreement;
5. Stresses that OSCE election observation must continue to improve and adapt;
6. Urges the heads of the Parliamentary elections observation missions to accept registrations to the missions only if the observers commit themselves to attend the full briefing programme as well as the debriefing preceding and following the mission; the heads of the missions may admit exceptions if the demand is duly justified.
Elanders, Vällingby 2009
For this Chapter the term “forces” includes all kind of armed forces as well as private military companies and private security companies.